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Salem, Ohio: I Had Vaginal Rejuvenation Surgery To Get My "Teenage" Vagina Back

Larry B. Rose 324 Derek Drive Salem, OH 44460

A woman describes her "teenage vagina," which she got through vaginal rejuvenation surgery.

I just recently picked up a new vagina. It's brand new, shiny, and never been tested by man. You think I'm kidding, but its true: One week ago today, along with other repair surgeries, I had a vaginal reconstruction. I'm 37, but in more ways than one I feel like a new woman, a virtual born-again virgin.

First, I will establish for you that I did not do this "vaginal rejuvenation" as a cosmetic option. I'm not a celebrity millionaire and if I had money to fix an area, there are many other baggy organs urgently pushing themselves to the top of my surgical waiting list. My injuries were due to an emergency forceps birth, which caused significant muscle damage eight years ago. So, the need to be rebuilt, along with receiving a supportive bladder sling apparatus, was of medical necessity.

My bladder now has a small nylon hammock (L.L. Bean, Cape Cod stripe, I imagine) that helps it from leaking during sneezes, coughs, and movies starring Steve Carrell. Does this device work? I don't know yet. After a week post op, I feel as though I went from peeing like a 90-year-old woman, to peeing like a 90-year-old man: it takes a good 15 minutes of dribbling to empty this new bladder. I'm hoping soon for a happy medium.

Moving on to the vagina; my surgeon repaired and tightened the damaged muscle tissue.

As Borat would say, she removed the "sleeve of wizard." I'm selling it on Craigslist if anyone is interested. Now, the reason I was able to wait this long for the surgery is that sex was not effected tremendously by my injuries; my spouse claimed that he did not notice the problem (what a nice man), and although I noticed a definite lack of sensation, I also hit my sexual peak during these past few years where I'm more easily aroused, so I felt satisfied.

My problem areas were things like Yoga classes, where in candlestick position my hoo-hoo would bellow and squeak, and the instructor would state, "whomever is playing the blue whale CD, could we please just listen to my Tibetan bowls instead." Also, I could eject a tampon 10 feet during a sneeze, a skill only useful in Dutch porn movies. Although these were isolated incidents, I was self-conscious at these times and no amount of Kegels would free me from the social pain of having queef-itis. Support groups, although loud and disruptive, offered some relief.

So now I'm on the mend, with a teenage-sized vagina.

My husband has been such a doll since I've been home; cooking, vacuuming, cleaning and dressing the kids, taking them to and from school, buying me chocolates and cheerleader costumes... how sweet. My sister replied to this, "Well, how many husbands get two vaginas out of the same old wife?" As far as how this new organ is going to work in six weeks, when all restrictions are lifted, who knows? The way things are at present, no man's apparatus, even of the Fisher Price variety, could ever fit down there. Still, I'll try to write a follow up report when it happens. That is, if my husband and I ever leave the bedroom again!

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Actually, if they can live with the fact that men have a sexuality to cope with, and if they aren't feminists, women, at least some of them, are quite OK.

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Huntsville, Alabama: The Female Orgasm Gets Better With Age: How Confidence Helps You Have The Best Sex Of Your Life

Jose L. Arant 21 New Creek Road Huntsville, AL 35806

Many of us believe the older we get, the more sex fades away each year. At a young age, we're taught men sexually peak at 18, while women reach their sexual prime time in their 20s, but the truth is, the best sex of our lives is tied to self-confidence. In a study conducted by Natural Cycles, the world's first app to be certified as contraception, researchers found women experience their best orgasm at age 36.

The survey revealed orgasm, feelings of attractiveness, and most enjoyable sex all get better with age, specifically in women 36 and over. Women in their late 30s and above scored 10 percent above the average when it came to confidence and body image; about six out of 10 admitted to having the best, and greatest number of orgasms; and they scored 10 percent higher than the younger age group (23 and younger). About nine out of 10 women in the older age group reported enjoying sex over the last four weeks compared to seven out of 10 in the middle age group (23 to 36).

"Our findings show that although women over the age of 35 engage in sex less frequently than younger age groups, they actually tend to have more and better orgasms," wrote Natural cycles, in their blog.

The researchers surveyed 2,600 women using the standardized McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire methodology. This method was designed to measure aspects of female sexuality that are likely to be affected by changing sex hormone levels. Estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play major roles in women's sex drive, with estrogen levels generally declining during perimenopause, eventually falling to a very low level.

The women were divided into three groups: younger, middle, and older, and were asked about various aspects of sexuality, like sexual attractiveness. While women in the older group scored higher than both groups, only four out of 10 women in the middle age group reported being happy with their appearance; seven out of 10 women under 23 said the same. Older women were more self confident about their sexual attractiveness and overall appearance.

When it came to climaxing, only five out of 10 in the younger groups of women had admitted to having more frequent and better orgasms. A little more than half of the youngest group agreed they had great sex over the last four weeks compared to their counterparts. The younger group seemed to be having the least enjoyable sex with limited to no orgasms.

As a whole, women gave mixed responses when it came to sex frequency. Under a third of women surveyed said they had sex twice a week, over one-fifth three times per week, and under one-fifth got intimate just once a week. Moreover, one in three women felt sex should last longer, while one in ten felt that it should be over quicker.

Overall, it seems the older women get, the more fulfilling their sex lives.

But why?

A 2016 study presented at the Annual Meeting of The North American Menopause Society in Orlando, Fla., found while women and their partners had lower libidos, these women had a better knowledge and understanding of their bodies, and how they work when it comes to sex. They also felt more comfortable in their skins and bodies. This ability led them to develop a higher self-confidence to express themselves sexually, and to communicate their needs to their partner.

Growing old doesn't mean your sex life is doomed; although the quantity of sex may be less, the quality only gets better.

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Indianapolis, Indiana: Microstructure, physicochemical properties and retrogradation behaviour of Mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens) starch on heat moisture treatments

Joseph S. Norris 4882 Capitol Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46254

Abstract

Mucuna bean starch was subjected to hydrothermal modifications by heat moisture conditioning at 18% (HMM18), 21% (HMM21), 24% (HMM24) and 27% (HMM27) moisture levels. At the temperature range studied (60–90 °C), increasing level of moisture conditioning reduced the solubility and swelling capacity. Solubility and swelling were pH dependent, with maximum values obtained at pH 12 in both native and modified starches. Increasing degree of alkalinity increased both solubility and swelling capacity. Water absorption capacity of the starch increased with the severity of moisture treatments, while the oil absorption capacity decreased. Apart from HMM18, all other modifications improved the gel forming capacity and firmness of the native starch. Pasting temperature increased after hydrothermal modifications, whereas peak viscosity (Pv), hot paste viscosity (Hv), viscosity after 30 min holding at 95 °C (Hv30) and cold paste viscosity (Cv) all reduced after modification. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed that heat moisture treatment increased the onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp) and conclusion temperature (Tc). In addition, gelatinisation band of the native starch increased progressively from HMM18–HMM27. Heat moisture treatment reduced the gelatinisation enthalpy (ΔH), while the enthalpy of retrogradation (ΔHr) increased with the storage time of the gelatinised starch. However, ΔHr of the heat moisture conditioned starches were lower than the value obtained for the native starch. Microscopy studies revealed no change in shape and size between the native and modified starches.

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Wichita, Kansas: Arthur Gary Bishop

Jacob S. Kieffer 2117 Henery Street Wichita, KS 67202

Summary:

Arthur Gary Bishop went from being a honor student, Eagle Scout and teenage missionary to an obsessed pedophile and child killer that he later attributed to pornography that he was to exposed to while growing up.

Personal Information:

Born - 1951 Birthplace - Hinckley, UT Died - June 10, 1988 Location of Death - Utah State Prison Cause of Death - Execution - Lethal Injection General Information:

Gender - Male Religion - Mormon Ethnicity - White Education - Stevens-Henager College Occupation - Accounting Crime Chronology:

1978 - Excommunicated from the Mormon Church 1978 - Embezzlement 1984 - Murder 1984 - five counts - convicted 1984 - Kidnapping 1984 - five counts - convicted 1984 - Sexual Abuse 1984 - Sexual Abuse of a Minor Profile:

Gary Bishop molested children for many years without being caught. At some point his crimes advanced to murder, which he discovered also fed his sick needs. Bishop killed five young boys from 1979 until his capture in 1983. To try to control his impulses he would perform his abuse on puppies, but that failed.

After confessing to his crimes he was tried and sentenced to death. In preparation for his execution by lethal injection, he read the Book of Mormon repeatedly and shielded himself from the profanity spoken by the other inmates by wearing headphones.

In the final hours prior to his execution he fasted and prayed. Arthur Gary Bishiop was executed by lethal injection by the state of Utah on June 10, 1988. He was 37 years old.

Known Victims:

Alonzo Daniels Age four. Murdered after being kidnapped from his families apartment complex courtyard.

Kim Peterson Age 11.

Murdered after going to Bishop's home to sell him his roller skates.

Danny Davis Age four. Murdered after being kidnapped at a grocery store.

Troy Ward Age six. Murdered after being kidnapped on his birthday from a park near his home.

Graeme Cunningham Age 13. Murdered after he vanished from his neighborhood.

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We, the elite, want all young beautiful women for us. Better not to tax alcohol and tobacco, as it removes low-quality men from the sexual arena. Also give them street drugs to ruin their health and lives.

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Stamford, Connecticut: The Jessica Lunsford Case

Roland M. Ellison 3688 Colony Street Stamford, CT 06905

Nine-year-old Jessica Lunsford disappeared from her bedroom at her grandparents' home in the middle of the night Feb. 23, 2005. A massive search was launched for the missing girl that drew the attention of national television networks over the following three weeks.

Police found the body of Jessica Lunsford buried in a shallow grave under the back porch of a mobile home less than 150 yards from her home on March 18, 2005, a day after a convicted sex offender told authorities that he had killed the nine-year-old.

LATEST DEVELOPMENTS Jessica Lunsford's Killer Dies in Prison Sept. 30, 2009 The man who kidnapped, raped and murdered 9-year-old Jessica Lunsford and buried her alive behind his sister's trailer, has died on death row of natural causes. John Evander Couey died at a Jacksonville hospital after a lengthy illness.

PREVIOUS DEVELOPMENTS John Evander Couey Gets Death Penalty Aug. 24, 2007 A repeat sex offender whose crimes against nine-year-old Jessica Lunsford led to new, tougher laws across the nation, was sentenced to death today in a Florida court. Judge: John Evander Couey Not Retarded Aug. 7, 2007 John Evander Couey is not retarded and is eligible for the death penalty, a Florida judge has ruled. Official sentencing is scheduled for Friday for the 48-year-old repeat sex offender.

Couey Sentencing Delayed Again July 17, 2007 John Evander Couey will not know until August 10 if he will face the death penalty or life in prison, as a Florida judge decides if Couey is mentally retarded or not.

John Evander Couey Still Not Sentenced June 22, 2007 Three months after a jury recommended the death sentence, John EvanderCouey has yet to be sentenced and is not scheduled back in court for a hearing until July 17.

Jury Recommends Death for John Evander Couey Mar. 14, 2007 A jury of his peers took less than one hour today to recommend a death sentence for John Evander Couey for the kidnapping, rape and murder of Jessica Marie Lunsford.

Justice for Jessica: Couey Found Guilty Mar. 7, 2007 A jury in Miami deliberated for almost four hours today before returning guilty verdicts in all charges against John Evander Couey in the kidnapping, rape and murder of Jessica Lunsford.

Closing Arguments Set in Lunsford Trial Mar. 6, 2007 Closing arguments are scheduled in the murder trial of John Evander Couey after the defense suddenly rested its case after calling only one witness.

Jury Selection Winds Down in Couey Trial Feb. 23, 2007 The first round of jury selection in the Miami murder trial of John Evander Couey ended last week with 71 potential jurors of 288 advancing to the second round of questioning, expected to last only two days.

Jury Selection Begins Feb. 12, 2007 Almost two years after nine-year-old Jessica Lunsford was kidnapped, raped, murdered and buried alive, jury selection is scheduled to begin today.

Judge Tosses More Evidence Jan. 8, 2007 A Florida judge has thrown out more statements made to law enforcement officer by John Evander Couey while being questioned about an unrelated Orlando case.

Jessica Lunsford Trial Moved to Miami Sept. 14, 2006 Florida will try again to find an impartial jury for the trial of John Evander Couey, this time in Miami.

Judge Halts Couey Jury Selection June 13, 2006 After three days of questioning potential jurors in the murder trial of John Evander Couey, a Florida judge halted the procedure and dismissed the remaining jurors, because he said an impartial panel could not be found in Lake County.

Jury Selection Begins July 10, 2006 Most of the potential jurors questioned during the first day of jury selection in the trial of John Evander Coueysaid they had heard of the case, but knew few details about Couey and why he came to be charged.

Confession Tossed in Jessica Lunsford Case July 2, 2006 A Florida judge has ruled that John Evander Couey's confession to investigators cannot be used as evidence in his trial, but the discovery of her body and a later jailhouse confession can be used.

John Evander Couey Wants Confession Tossed May 19, 2006 Attorneys for John Evander Couey filed motions to suppress his confession because they said he was denied access to a lawyer.

Judge Grants Change of Venue for Couey Trial Apr. 21, 2006 A Florida judge has granted the request from John Evander Couey's attorneys to move to another county his trial for the kidnapping, rape and murder of Jessica Lunsford. Prosecutors did not contest the motion.

Cops Came Close to Finding Jessica Lunsford June 23, 2005 The confession of John Evander Couey revealed that Jessica Lunsford was still alive in a closet when police came to the door to question her Homosassa, Florida neighbors about her disappearance.

Jessica Lunsford Was Raped, Buried Alive April 20, 2005 Documents released by state prosecutors show that nine-year-old Jessica Lunsford was raped and buried alive in two plastic garbage bags with her hands tied with speaker wire.

John Evander Couey Charged in Jessica's Death March 23, 2005 A convicted sex offender apparently kidnapped Jessica Lunsford from her bedroom and held her bound and gagged for at least two days 100 yards from her home while police, search dogs and volunteers swarmed the neighborhood.

Police Find Jessica Lunsford's Shallow Grave March 18, 2005 Police found the body of Jessica Lunsford buried in a shallow grave under the back porch of a mobile home less than 150 years from her home.

Sex Offender Questioned in Jessica Lunsford Case March 17, 2005 Rather than searching for Jessica Lunsford, authorities were investigating a registered sex offender who lived nearby and left the area shortly after Jessica vanished.

Police Puzzled Over Disappearance of Jessica Lunsford March 7, 2005 Authorities in Homosassa, Florida have very few, if any, clues in the disappearance of Jessica Marie Lunsford 10 days after she vanished from her bedroom.

9-Year-Old Jessica Lunsford Still Missing Feb. 28, 2005 More than 500 volunteers searching in the rain and wind and hundreds of tips received by authorities in the past four days have yet to turn up any clues in the disappearance of Jessica Lunsford of Homosassa, Florida.

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Shockwave therapy is the new Viagra. It actually cures erectile dysfunction and causes. You can do your own shockwave therapy. Just dangle your dick in front of the subwoofer, and turn your ghetto blaster to full power.

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Fresno, California: IRANIAN MUSLIM PEDOPHILE ARRESTED IN SYNAGOGUE FIRE IN LAS VEGAS

Anthony D. Evans 4985 Edgewood Avenue Fresno, CA 93704

A suspect was arrested and faces arson and burglary charges after investigators said he lit a pair of fires at a Las Vegas synagogue Monday evening in a possible hate crime, according to authorities.

Las Vegas Police arrested Afshin Bahrampour in a shopping center parking lot across the street from the scene of two fires set at the Chabad of Southern Nevada Desert Torah Academy at 1261 Arville Street late Monday, Las Vegas Fire and Rescue spokesman Tim Szymanski said.

Firefighters were called out to handle a car fire in the synagogue’s parking lot just after 8 p.m. Monday. Crews quickly extinguished the blaze, which caused significant damage to the vehicle and minor damage to two others.

While firefighters were cleaning up after the car fire, synagogue personnel told investigators they had extinguished a mysterious fire in a waste basket inside their building two hours earlier, Szymanski said.

Afshin Bahrampour has a very interesting history. He's a registered sex offender on 2 counts of sodomy. The case is likely this one in Oregon.

On December 10, 1997 at approximately 3:00 p.m., AFSHIN BAHRAMPOUR, age 28, from Sherwood, was taken into custody by officers from Sherwood and Tigard Police Departments after eluding authorities for over one year.

In 1996, a secret indictment based upon an Oregon State Police investigation was handed down by a Washington County Grand Jury charging Afshin Bahrampour with several counts of Sex Abuse involving a girl who was 13 years old at the time. Aware of the investigation, he left the address where he was living in Beaverton and moved to an unknown location. Bahrampour was known to work as a gymnastics coach at several local area gymnastics facilities where he had contact with young girls.

At about 2:45 p.m., Sherwood Police Officer G. Smith received a call from the principal of Hopkins Elementary School advising that Bahrampour had tried to enter their school and was refused entry. Officers continued to check the area, and based upon additional sightings by some public works employees, Bahrampour was found walking on Tonquin Road near Tonquin Loop in Sherwood. Officers described Bahrampour as being dirty and muddy from hiding in bushes in the area.

He was convicted and sentenced to 8 years in prison for the abuse of a 13 year old girl. And then launched an impressive array of lawsuits against everyone and everything.

He sued Oregon because they wouldn't let him have copies of Muscle Elegance magazine. (It was determined he had no Federal constitutional right to receive it in prison.) and the Joint Chiefs of Unfaith, aka America.

This matter involves Afshin Bahrampour's civil-right action against the Joint Chiefs of Unfaith, Barack Obama, N.A.S.A., the Central Intelligence Agency, the U.S. Navy, the National Security Administration, Independent Agencies, and the United States of America, among others, for reading his thoughts.

For example, Plaintiff states that "[t]he 'neural remote monitoring,' N.R.M., is audibly recognizable in the auditory cortex at 15 (hertz) and is a very mentally distressing and distractionary [sic] PRESENCE. It interrupts my prayer as a Shia Muslim."

But apparently molesting young girls and trying to start fires in synagogues does not.

Afshin Bahrampour seems to have wasted countless amounts of taxpayer money in these lawsuits and his various imprisonments. Just imagine if we had acted sanely and just sent him back where he came from.

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Richmond, Virginia: Industrial Chemicals as Weapons: Chlorine

Joseph G. Gaskins 1369 Biddie Lane Richmond, VA 23223

Certain recent events in Iraq have elevated long-standing fears that terrorist groups may use poisonous chemicals, especially elemental chlorine, as toxic weapons against vulnerable populations. These concerns rest on a solid factual basis: many chemicals produced for industrial purposes are inherently dangerous due to their possession of one or more of the following properties: reactivity, flammability, explosiveness, toxicity, or carcinogenicity. In particular, the toxic industrial gases anhydrous ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, and elemental chlorine (often referred to as toxic inhalation hazards, or TIH) are of utmost concern from both safety and security standpoints. Any of these chemicals when released in the course of an accident or a deliberate attack can form a toxic gaseous plume that when carried by wind is capable of inflicting potentially catastrophic loss of life on the population in its path. The worst industrial accident in history is illustrative: 40 metric tons of methyl isocyanate was released from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, on December 3, 1984. The resulting plume killed at least 3,000 people downwind and injured more than 100,000. A sufficiently large release of elemental chlorine may be capable of exacting a comparable toll, particularly if it were to be discharged in a highly populated civilian area.

This issue brief describes the properties, hazards, and the legitimate applications of chlorine, as well as its use for weapons purposes during World War I and currently in Iraq. The vulnerability of America's chemical infrastructure to deliberate attack (including the facilities that produce, consume, and transport chlorine), as well as efforts currently underway to achieve infrastructure security, are also examined. The brief concludes with an evaluation of alternative approaches to mitigating the potential threat posed by a deliberate chlorine release.

Properties of Chlorine

Chlorine (Cl[2]) is a highly reactive, pale green gas produced industrially by the electrolysis of readily available aqueous sodium chloride (table salt). Worldwide, the annual production of chlorine totals approximately 55 million metric tons.[1] In 2006, the American chemical industry produced 12.2 million metric tons of chlorine, making it one of the ten most produced chemicals in the United States by weight.[2] Chlorine and its derivative chemicals serve myriad functions in modern society. The most important use of chlorine itself is as a disinfectant; for example, chlorine is employed worldwide in drinking water treatment facilities. In addition, chlorine derivatives (materials containing chlorine atoms chemically bound to other elements) are used as bleaching agents, construction materials (especially polyvinyl chloride, or PVC), high purity silicon precursors (e.g. trichlorosilane) for use in computer chip manufacture, pharmaceutical compounds (including "blockbuster" drugs such as Singulair, Plavix, and Norvasc), and many other functional materials.[3]

The high toxicity of chlorine gas tempers the many beneficial uses of the chemical.[4] Chlorine gas is heavier than air, and therefore will disperse slowly into the atmosphere after release. Because chlorine is water soluble, exposure to the gas irritates the mucous membranes and eyes at concentrations (in air) of under 3 parts per million (ppm).[5],[6] Moderate irritation of the upper respiratory tract occurs at 5-15 ppm, followed by chest pain, vomiting, and dyspnea at 30 ppm. Above 50 ppm, lung inflammation and pulmonary edema occurs. Chlorine is deadly at concentrations of several hundred ppm or higher. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, a chlorine concentration of 10 ppm is considered to be immediately dangerous to life or health.[7]

Military and Terrorist Use of Chlorine

In what many consider to be the dawn of modern chemical warfare, chlorine was first employed as a "choking agent" in the early days of World War I. On April 22, 1915, during the second battle of Ypres, the German military released approximately 168 metric tons of chlorine from 5,730 buried gas cylinders.[8] The heavy green plume was carried by prevailing winds to the Allied lines, where French and French Algerian soldiers, not suspecting a chemical attack, were taken by surprise and quickly overwhelmed by the chlorine. The attack claimed the lives of at least 800 soldiers, and injured thousands more. While this incident underscores the potential lethality of chlorine, both sides soon realized that chlorine is not a militarily effective chemical weapon against a prepared adversary. In particular, chlorine possesses both a visible color and a strong odor, which alerts people of its presence and enables avoidance. Moreover, the effects of chlorine exposure may be completely or somewhat mitigated using simple countermeasures, such as wearing a gas mask or even covering the nasal passages with a wet cloth. Therefore, chlorine was quickly abandoned in favor of more fearsome chemical agents (e.g. phosgene and mustard gas). Despite its nefarious usage, its widespread manufacture and distribution for industrial and sanitary purposes has continued.

In Iraq, militias or terrorists have detonated bombs rigged to cylinders containing chlorine that originally were intended for water treatment and other industrial uses, with the intention of dispersing the gas over their targets (primarily Iraqi police and civilians). The US military believes that terrorist groups affiliated with Al Qaeda are primarily responsible for these types of attacks.[9] According to the United Nations Monitoring, Inspection, and Verification Commission (UNMOVIC), at least 10 attacks involving chlorine have occurred in Iraq up to June 1, 2007, resulting in dozens of civilian deaths and an unknown number of injuries.[10] An attack on June 3, 2007 targeted a United States military forward operating base and resulted in making 65 US service members ill from chlorine exposure. The perpetrators have used relatively small, easily transportable quantities of chlorine in the attacks, no more than several tons. Deaths have been attributed primarily to the effects of the explosives themselves, not the chlorine.[11] It is reasonable to assume that the efficacy of these attacks will increase as terrorists modify their methods of chlorine dispersion based on past experience.

The attacks in Iraq utilizing chlorine have re-raised simmering questions in the United States: Is the country's chemical infrastructure, especially the sub-sector that makes and stores elemental chlorine, vulnerable to attacks by terrorist elements that would result in the large-scale release of TIH chemicals over population centers? Would facilities where chlorine is stored be attractive to those who seek to harm civilians?

Chlorine presents both disadvantages and some advantages to domestic terrorists. On the one hand, chlorine is not nearly as potent a toxin as other chemical weapons used in terrorist attacks, such as the fluoroorganophosphate nerve agent sarin released on the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 by the religious cult Aum Shinrikyo, killing 12. However, nerve agents require substantial finances, advanced equipment, appropriate chemical precursors, and personnel with specialized training in synthetic organic chemistry to prepare. Even then, nerve agent synthesis and dispersion is non-trivial. For example, Aum Shinrikyo used impure sarin coupled with a crude and relatively ineffective delivery system for the subway attack, despite mustering all the resources mentioned above.[12] On the other hand, chlorine does not need to be chemically synthesized (given its abundance), and as a gas does not require active aerosolization for efficient dispersal. Most importantly, a large release of chlorine may inflict mass casualties on unprepared civilians. According to a 2004 report by the Homeland Security Council, a deliberate release of 60,000 gallons of liquefied chlorine from an industrial facility in a highly populated area may result in 17,500 civilian deaths, while the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates that a "worst-case" chemical release would result in fewer than 10,000 deaths.[13][14]

Chemical Facility Security

According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the United States there are approximately 15,000 facilities, including about 2,000 water systems, which store more than the threshold quantities of hazardous chemicals necessary to trigger EPA regulation. A "worst-case" chemical release from any one of 123 such facilities could expose more than 1,000,000 people to toxic gases.[15] In the aftermath of September 11th, the chemical industry has recognized its potential vulnerability and moved rapidly to enhance facility security. In 2002, the American Chemistry Council (ACC), a chemical industry association whose members control approximately 2,000 facilities, established the Responsible Care[®] Security Code, a mandatory private security initiative.[16] The Security Code requires member facilities to complete vulnerability assessments, perform physical security enhancements, invite an independent, third party audit of these enhancements, conduct employee training and drills, and perform periodic security self-audits. These requirements apply to members of the Chlorine Institute, a trade association and Responsible Care[®] partner whose membership includes 98% of chlorine producers and 100% of chlorine packagers in the United States.[17] According to the ACC, its companies have invested about $3 billion in security improvements since September 11th, and all member facilities have completed security upgrades and subsequent independent audits.[18]

Although private security initiatives have garnered justifiable praise, they are also widely viewed as inadequate. Investigative journalists have easily penetrated dozens of chemical facilities nationwide, including many housing chlorine, over the past several years. For example, in 2003, a reporter was able to approach storage tanks holding approximately 1,000 tons of chlorine gas at the Sony Technology Center in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.[19] In 2005, reporters from the New York Times were able to approach and loiter near chlorine storage tanks on an industrial site in densely populated Northern New Jersey, only miles from New York City.[20] In addition to the gaps in physical security, facility employees and emergency response personnel are often inadequately prepared to handle a deliberate chemical release.[21] Clearly, comprehensive chemical security requires, in addition to private initiatives, the participation of the public sector in order to safeguard the public most effectively.

At the federal level of government, DHS is responsible for chemical sector security. Until very recently, however, DHS had not received a Congressional mandate to implement and enforce industry-wide security measures.[22] The situation changed in October 2006, when President Bush signed the Homeland Security Appropriations Act, H.R. 5441, which gave DHS interim (3 year) authority to regulate security at chemical facilities. On April 2, 2007, DHS issued the interim final rule regulating chemical facility security, known as the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards.[23] The rule requires facilities possessing a threshold quantity of one or more of 342 chemicals of interest, including chlorine, to file a report known as a "top screen" with DHS. For chlorine, this threshold level currently is 1,875 lbs or more.[24] Using this data, DHS will perform a risk assessment and categorize "at risk" facilities according to a tiered system, with Tier 1 facilities considered the highest risk and Tier 4 facilities the lowest. A number of factors are considered in the assessment, including the type and amount of chemical(s) stored as well as the layout and location of the facility. DHS currently estimates that 5,000-8,000 facilities will be assigned a ranking in the tier system, with fewer than 1,000 assigned to Tiers 1 & 2.[25] The facilities assigned to a risk tier will be required to submit vulnerability assessments and site security plans, subject to DHS verification, with failure to comply resulting in daily fines and/or shutdown of the facility in violation. Chemical manufacturers have embraced the new rule's risk-based approach, although others, including environmental groups, have highlighted several apparent weaknesses.[26],[27] For example, the rule contains no timetable for compliance, no whistleblower protections, and may preempt more stringent state and local regulations. Furthermore, the rule is not applicable to water and waste treatment facilities that utilize chlorine for disinfection, and does not require these or other chemical facilities to consider replacing chlorine with safer alternatives (see below). Recent thefts of chlorine cylinders from a California water treatment facility have served to underscore the final point.[28]

Security of Chlorine Rail Shipments

Industrial chemicals, like all commodities, must be transported from production facilities to various consumers. For TIH chemicals such as chlorine, freight railroad offers the most viable transportation option for large-scale shipment. Of the approximately 12 million tons of chlorine produced annually in the United States, almost 3 million tons are shipped by rail, usually in 90 ton pressurized tank cars.6 Rail shipment of hazardous materials (hazmat) is very reliable; 99.997% of the ca. 1.8 million annual hazmat shipments in the United States arrive without incident.[29] Although rail accidents involving chlorine are exceedingly rare, when chlorine tank cars are breached, the consequences often are fatal. On June 28, 2004, near San Antonio, Texas, a head-on collision of two trains resulted in a chlorine tank car breach. Two people died of chlorine inhalation, and 50 more were hospitalized for exposure. On January 6, 2005, in Graniteville, South Carolina, another head-on collision resulted in the derailment of three cars containing chlorine. The resultant chlorine plume killed 8 people, injured 240 more, and led to the evacuation of 5400 people from the spill area.[30]

The railroad infrastructure (including trains, tracks, stations, etc.) is vast and relatively accessible, a necessity for rapid and inexpensive exchange of people and goods. The US rail system is comprised of approximately 171,000 miles of track and covers an area of 3,200 square miles.[31] The open nature of rail systems renders them particularly prone to attacks by terrorists and other groups, as no feasible security plan can possibly protect the entire infrastructure simultaneously and at all times. The RAND Corporation estimates that 181 terrorist attacks against railroads worldwide occurred in the period between 1998 and 2003.[32] Most attacks were directed against transit systems, as exemplified by the more recent bombings of the Madrid, London, and Mumbai commuter rail systems. The US freight rail system is as vulnerable as the European rail systems, and many lines pass through densely populated, high threat urban areas (HTUA's), most notably in the Northeastern corridor. Given the large quantities of chlorine shipped by rail, as well as the potentially catastrophic consequences of a large chlorine release, chlorine-containing tanker cars may represent an attractive target for terrorists.

Freight rail security, especially hazmat and TIH chemical transport, has attracted concern since September 11th and, even more so, after the Graniteville, S.C. chlorine accident in 2005. The freight rail industry, through programs initiated by the Association of American Railroads (AAR), has taken a more proactive stance on security issues since September 11th. The Terrorism Risk Analysis and Security Management Plan designed by AAR forms the basis for post-9/11 freight rail security. The plan includes over 50 security enhancements, addressing a number of general issues such as physical security, risk assessment, communications, and enhanced employee security training.[33] The railroads also, through the Transportation Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program (TRANSCAER) and the ACC's Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (Chemtrec), train and inform emergency responders to help them deal with hazmat emergencies. With respect to chlorine and other TIH chemicals, the Union Pacific railroad recently signed a memorandum of understanding with Dow Chemical to upgrade the TIH railcar fleet and procedures for TIH transport. The memorandum calls for the installation of global positioning satellite units on all TIH tank cars, the design of a new, more robust tank car for TIH chemicals, as well as a reduction in the time that TIH tank cars lay idle in urban areas.[34]

There has existed considerable variation in the approaches of local and federal governments to the threat of chlorine rail shipments. Many local governments, particularly HTUA's, are examining the possibility of banning chlorine rail shipments in proximity to highly populated areas. Citing the threat of chlorine, the Washington, D.C. city council voted on February 1, 2005 to ban all hazmat shipments within 2.2 miles of the Capitol, thus forcing rail companies to reroute shipments of chlorine around the city center.[35] CSX Transportation challenged the law in court and received an injunction, which remains in effect as of this writing. The railroad industry argues that: (1) rerouting increases the risk of accidental of deliberate hazmat exposure, due to increased mileage, (2) rerouting simply shifts exposure risk to other populations, and (3) regulatory variations at each locality would impose significant cost and time burdens on the industry. The federal government, represented by the Department of Justice, supported the railroad industry position in this case, arguing that the regulation of interstate commerce is its Constitutional responsibility.[36] The federal agency responsible for freight rail security, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), has not yet sought to force railroads to reroute chlorine and other TIH chemicals around HTUA's, as it currently is not currently required to do so by law. Rather, TSA and the Department of Transportation (DOT) have issued voluntary security action items to guide private railroad efforts to secure chlorine and other TIH railcars.[37] TSA is also engaged in formulating rules and pilot programs in cooperation with the railroad industry, aimed at reducing the potential for attack on chlorine tankers. In conjunction with other federal, state, and local government agencies, TSA is currently conducting comprehensive reviews of rail corridor security, with a focus on HTUA rail corridors.[38] However, many have perceived federal funding for surface transportation security, including rail security, to be inadequate. The American Public Transportation Association noted in early 2007 that the federal government has allocated $549 million for rail transit security (including both passenger and freight rail security) since September 11, 2001, in contrast to over $24 billion for aviation security.[39]

Although prior security efforts have no doubt made a positive impact on rail security, freight railroads, and the chlorine transported on them, remain poorly protected. Publicly disclosed reports and media investigations over the past five years have identified gaping vulnerabilities in freight rail security. For example, a 2006 report published by the Citizens for Rail Safety (a public interest group) concluded that rail facilities are not sufficiently secure: cars containing hazmat, including TIH such as chlorine, often sit idle and unprotected, rail workers are poorly trained with respect to security, and emergency responders and citizens are ill-prepared for a hazmat emergency.[40] In early 2007, a reporter from the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review published an article describing how he gained access to a number of hazmat-containing (including chlorine) railcars throughout the country.[41] The reporter was not stopped by employees or rail police, and found hazmat-containing railcars unprotected on rails controlled by 12 railroads. These reports followed the publication in 2005 of two Teamsters Rail Conference surveys of rail workers, which reported significant physical security lapses and a notable lack of security training for workers.[42],[43]

Partially in response to the problems cited above, the US Congress passed new homeland security legislation (H.R. 1: Improving America's Security Act of 2007) on July 27, 2007.[44] President Bush has indicated that he will sign the bill into law in August 2007. The legislation will provide significant enhancements in TIH rail transportation security.[45] Provisions in the legislation call for significantly enhanced funding for freight rail safety and security, including hazmat transportation security, infrastructure improvement, and research and development aimed at secure rail car technologies. Specifically, language in the bill encourages the adoption of wireless communications to track the positions of TIH railcars and monitor their status in real-time. Furthermore, DHS and the DOT must require rail carriers shipping TIH chemicals to develop and submit risk mitigation plans to be enacted when the Homeland Security Advisory System threat levels are high or severe. These plans are to include rerouting of TIH chemical shipments away from high consequence targets, including densely populated areas, landmarks, and other important national resources, as designated by DHS. The legislation also calls for the establishment of a "rail worker security training program" and introduces federal whistleblower protections to protect rail employees who report rail security lapses and violations. This legislation promises to mitigate some of the problems currently facing rail security, but the ongoing evolution of public and private measures must continue.

Inherently Safer Technologies

An alternate approach to mitigating the risk posed by chlorine may be to reduce levels of chlorine consumption by replacing chlorine with inherently safer technologies (ISTs). As noted in a 2006 study by the National Academy of Sciences, "The most desirable solution to preventing chemical releases is to reduce or eliminate the hazard where possible, not to control it."[46] The adoption of ISTs to replace TIH chemicals is strongly supported by a number of interested parties, including environmental groups and the railroad industry. Depending on the industrial application, chlorine may in fact be readily replaced with cost-effective alternatives. According to a 2006 study by the Center for American Progress, 207 waste treatment plants and drinking water facilities have replaced chlorine gas with safer disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) and ultraviolet light since 1999.[47] Adoption of ISTs not only eliminates the TIH risk of chlorine at the chemical facility, but also reduces the risk of chlorine release in transit. For example, since 1999, 25 water facilities in the United States that previously received chlorine shipments by freight rail have switched to ISTs, and six others plan to do so.[48] Despite this progress, over 2,000 water treatment facilities continue to use chlorine gas, with 37 continuing to receive freight rail shipments. These facilities should be encouraged to adopt ISTs, especially in light of the current situation in Iraq and the thefts of chlorine in California in 2007 (see above).

However, chlorine cannot be easily replaced with IST in totality due to its chemical versatility. Notably, water treatment accounts for only about 5% of chlorine consumption. Chlorine remains a central ingredient in the manufacture of other chemicals and materials, most notably plastics, and a cost-effective replacement may not be apparent in many cases. In addition, a main byproduct of chlorine manufacture, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), is itself an important industrial chemical (the chlorine production process is known as the Chlor-Alkali process for this reason). Eight million metric tons of sodium hydroxide was produced in the United States in 2006. Thus, an analysis of chlorine replacement by IST must explore the economic impact of lowered chlorine and sodium hydroxide production. The replacement of chlorine by IST is a worthy pursuit, but it will be a long-term endeavor.

Conclusion

It is indisputable that should a large chlorine release such as the Graniteville accident take place in the future, it would pose a substantial danger to the public. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate convincingly that chlorine-containing facilities, whether they are chemical plants or railroad infrastructure, may be infiltrated with ease and regularity by trespassers. It may be argued that there exist more readily accessible targets for terrorist attack, including even smaller quantities of chlorine transported by truck. However, given the toll that a large-scale chlorine release could inflict on a population, facilities and railcars containing multi-ton quantities of chlorine warrant increased attention. The DHS and TSA have both worked well with industry to create voluntary chemical security guidelines, yet to date neither agency has imposed stringent regulations governing chlorine security. The establishment of a coherent national policy (which adequately addresses the concerns of individual localities) regarding the issue of TIH railcar rerouting around HTUA's is particularly vital. The recently approved federal legislation addresses rerouting of TIH shipments in times of elevated threat, but a permanent, satisfactory solution for a non-threat environment will also be required. Further, the new Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards issued by DHS do not require the chemical industry to examine adopting ISTs to replace chlorine and other TIH chemicals. While chlorine replacement with an IST should not necessarily be mandatory, incentives should be considered to persuade the chemical industry to adopt safer practices. The federal government should also consider an increase in funding for research aimed at the development of ISTs. If a viable, cost effective IST exists for a given chemical process, it is in the best interest of the chemical industry to adopt it of their own accord in order to safeguard employees, facilities, and the surrounding communities. Increased funding for fundamental research and development of ISTs will hasten this progression. Finally, perhaps the best countermeasure against a large attack using chlorine or other TIH chemicals is public awareness and education. Militarily, it has been known for 80 years that the deleterious effects of chlorine may be attenuated using simple methods. Both private industry and governments at all levels, especially those with chlorine facilities in their jurisdictions, should enhance education and outreach efforts to the public regarding appropriate courses of action (e.g. shelter in place protocols) in the case of a chlorine release incident.

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Once islamic terror organizations will have discovered the power of arson, they will win any war. Setting forests on fire is low risk for attackers and inflicts maximum damage.

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Seattle, Washington: These 12 Weed Strains Are Better Than Viagra

David S. McGee 4358 Union Street Seattle, WA 98101

It’s no secret that weed makes sex better. In fact, for many men, weed is better than Viagra. For example, one study found that 83 percent of men who used weed before having sex reported enhanced sexual pleasure. Similarly, 68 percent said that getting high gave them more intense orgasms, and 39 percent said it increased their stamina.

A lot of it has to do with how weed interacts with your mind and body. For starters, getting high makes you feel more relaxed. As your inhibitions drop you can more fully immerse yourself in the experience of having sex.

Beyond that, many researchers also think it has a lot to do with how the cannabinoids in weed affect your body’s endocannabinoid system. In particular, cannabis interacts with the CB1 receptor in your brain. When that happens, it gives you increased physical sensations and a general sense of euphoria. All of that helps create super intense sexual sensations and orgasms.

Now that we’ve got the science out of the way, here are the best strains to try next time you have sex.

A lot of it has to do with how weed interacts with your mind and body. For starters, getting high makes you feel more relaxed. As your inhibitions drop you can more fully immerse yourself in the experience of having sex.

Beyond that, many researchers also think it has a lot to do with how the cannabinoids in weed affect your body’s endocannabinoid system. In particular, cannabis interacts with the CB1 receptor in your brain. When that happens, it gives you increased physical sensations and a general sense of euphoria. All of that helps create super intense sexual sensations and orgasms.

Now that we’ve got the science out of the way, here are the best strains to try next time you have sex.

12. Green Crack

Green Crack is super popular, and as the name suggests, once people try it they usually come back for more. It’s a sativa-dominant hybrid known for delivering a perfect balance of stimulating and energy-boosting buzz, all while maintaining mental clarity. When it comes to sex, you’ll be fully aware, aroused, and in the moment.

11. Granddaddy Purple

If you are looking for something that gives you a deeper sense of relaxation before hitting the sheets, give Granddaddy Purple a shot. It has an impressive indica family tree. And with high levels of THC—usually in the ballpark of 17-23 percent—it packs a punch. Expect to feel it in your body. The relaxation it produces can go a long way with your sex life. Just don’t go too heavy on this one or you may end up couch locked.

10. Blue Cheese

Blue Cheese is kind of the perfect hybrid. It gives you the mental stimulation of a sativa along with the body buzz of an indica. For a lot of men, that combo gets them in the perfect state to experience mind-blowing orgasms. Give it a shot and see what Blue Cheese does for you.

9. Skywalker OG

Skywalker OG hits you primarily in your body. It’s a very popular strain among medical cannabis users, primarily because it is good at relieving aches and pains, reducing headaches, and helping people deal with stress and depression. The body highs it produces can also give you increased sexual stamina and heightened sensation. But as with a few other indica-dominant strains on this list, go slow at first—you don’t want to end up too couch locked to perform or even Viagra won’t be enough to bring you back.

8. Chemdawg

When Chemdawg hits you right you can experience a whole range of sensations: everything from deep bodily relaxation to intense cerebral highs bordering on a psychedelic trip. However it affects you, it will be the perfect way to prep for mind-blowing sex.

7. Skunk #1

Puffing some Skunk #1 will fill your room with that classic, pungent, skunky weed smell. It will also get your mind right. Expect to feel relaxed, happy, uplifted, and euphoric—the perfect mental state for some seriously powerful sexy time.

6. Goo

Goo is a mix between Blueberry and Hindu Kush. Its smell and taste profiles straddle the worlds of sweet berries and earthy pine forests. It also produces some incredibly relaxing body highs. And when it comes to being an aphrodisiac, especially for men, it’s pretty much all right there in the name.

5. Silver Haze

Silver Haze buds are beautiful. They’re covered in such a heavy layer of resin crystals that they look like little nugs of platinum. This strain is an even 50/50 hybrid that delivers a pleasant mix of head and body highs. It’s great for morning, afternoon, and nighttime use, which means you can have better sex than anything Viagra could give you whenever you want it.

4. Atomic Northern Lights

Atomic Northern Lights is a variant of the classic Northern Lights strain. It was created when breeders crossed it with Dr. Atomic seeds. The end result is a hybrid that leans slightly toward the indica side, but that produces effects that hit you in both your head and your body. Expect to feel happy, euphoric, and relaxed.

3. G13

Rumor is it that G13 was created by the U.S. government. Whatever its history, the G13 you’ll find at your dispensary will be a nice mix of indica and sativa. It’s most effective as a nighttime strain, although many users will find it mild enough to use in the afternoon as well. The combination of pain-killing body highs and stimulating mental highs this strain produces makes it a powerful aphrodisiac.

2. Trainwreck

Trainwreck is a hard-hitting sativa-dominant hybrid. Throughout the entire experience of using it, Trainwreck is intense. Start off by enjoying its uniquely spicy scent and flavor profile. Then, sit back and let the mood-enhancing, stimulating effects set in. By the time you’re stoned, you will be revved up and ready to go. See, there really is no need for Viagra.

1. Bruce Banner

There’s a good reason this strain is called Bruce Banner. Everything about it is big, strong, and intense—and that goes for its aphrodisiac qualities as well. Break apart the sweet, diesel-smelling nugs and prepare for a head high that sets in super fast and that will leave you feeling stimulated, energetic, euphoric, and aroused. Forget Viagra. This strain will give you sexual powers you never thought you had.

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In peace, women are feminists. In wars, they are cowards, trading sexual signals for sympathy and protection.

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