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Jacob M. Staggs 1650 Bartlett Avenue Southfield, MI 48034
During the World War I, a new, deadly type of weapon was used for the first time; toxic gas. Considered uncivilised prior to the war, the development and military usage of poisonous gas grenades was soon called for by the demands of both sides to find a new way to overcome the stalemate of unforeseen trench warfare.
First used at the Second Battle of Ypres on 22 April 1915, cylinders filled with toxic gas soon became one of the most devastating and effective weapons used in the entire Great War, killing more than 90,000 soldiers and injuring about 1.25 million. In this article, we are going to explore the 4 of most deadly chemical weapons ever conceived, their history, usage, and effects on the human beings.
While Germans were releasing the mustard gas in year 1917 near the Belgian city of Ypres for the first time, chemist Frederic Guthrie was most likely turning in his grave. In year 1860, this British professor discovered the mustard gas, and also experienced its toxic effects first-hand for the first time. 57 years later, after its first military usage at Ypres, it got its infamous nickname, Yperite.
In the beginning, Germans planned to use the mustard gas only as a paralyzing agent. However, they soon found out, that when in sufficient concentrations, this gas could be easily lethal to the majority of the enemy soldiers.
Due to its dangerous properties, mustard gas soon became a popular chemical weapon, used in WWII, during the North Yemen Civil War, and even by Saddam Husein in year 1988. Even 150 years after its discovery, antidote is still to be discovered.
Pure mustard gas is colourless, oily liquid at room temperature. When used in its impure form, as warfare agent, it is usually green-brown in color and has an specific odor resembling mustard or garlic, hence the name. Yperite fumes are more than 6 times heavier than air, staying near the ground for several hours, effectively filling and contaminating enemy’s trenches, and killing everyone without proper protection.
Lethal dose for an adult man weighing 160 lbs is approximately 7,5 g of liquid mustard gas, when in contact with his skin for several minutes. However, when used in its gaseous form, lethality greatly depends on its concentration and on the length of exposure. Gas mask is usually not enough to be protected from this gas; it can easily penetrate the skin and kill the victim from inside. It easily passes through most of the clothes, shoes or other materials. For instance, standard rubber gloves could protect the skin for only about ten minutes.
4 or 6 hours after exposure, burning sensation appears in the affected areas, followed by reddening of the skin. After next 16 hours, large blisters appear on the affected skin, subsequently causing severe scarring and sometimes even necrosis. If the eyes were affected, temporary or permanent blindness typically occurs after few days.
When inhaled, first symptoms start to manifest themselves after several hours, starting with chest pain, bloody coughing and vomiting, followed by muscle spasms. Death usually occurs within 3 days, caused either by lung edema or heart failure.
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In year 1812, 22-year old British amateur chemist John Davy syntetized the phosgene gas for the first time. However, it didn’t contain any phosphorus, its name was derived from greek words phos(light) and gennesis(birth). John Davy probably assumed that his invention would be used in a more sensible way, however, on 9.th of December, 88 tons of phosgene were released during the trench warfare in France, killing 69 men and seriously injuring more then 1,200.
Germans were satisfied by the results, so they soon started using grenades filled by phosgene in combat. It accounts for more than 60% of all deaths caused by the chemical warfare during the First World War, more than chlorine and mustard gas combined.
During the Second World War, most soldiers were well-prepared for the possible use of this deadly gas, so the casualties were nowhere that high. However, phosgene-filled grenades used during the 1942 Battle of Kerch by Nazi Germany allegedly injured at least 10,000 Soviet soldiers.
Which deadly properties does this gas possess? At low temperatures, it is a colourless liquid. However, when heated to more than 8 degrees celsius, it evaporates quickly. Its odor has been often described by the survivors as pleasant, similar to newly mown hay or wet grass. After release, it contaminates the area for about 10 minutes, double the time in the winter. When compared to chlorine, phosgene has a major advantage; first symptoms start to manifest themselves after much longer time period, usually after more than five minutes, allowing more phosgene to be inhaled.
After one inhales high concentrations of this lethal gas, his chances of survival are very mild. After few minutes, he is likely to die of suffocation, because phosgene aggresively disrupts the blood-air barrier in the lungs.
After inhaling less concentrated phosgene, you might be little bit better off. One hour after exposure, first symptoms include strong burning sensation in pharynx and trachea, severe headache and vomiting, followed by pulmonary edema(swelling and fluid buildup), which often leads to suffocation.
To this day, phosgene remains one of the most dangerous chemical weapons in the world. Although not as deadly as sarin or nerve gas, it is very easy to manufacture; no wonder it’s often used during terrorist attacks. Homemade phosgene grenade can be easily created by exposing a bottle of chloroform to UV-light source for a few days.
If previous two chemicals weren’t dangerous enough, here comes the sarin, often known as the most powerful of all nerve agents.
Sarin was developed back in 1938 by a group of 4 German scientists, Scharder, Ambros, Rudiger and van der Linde, during their research of pesticides. During the WWII, this deadly gas was first used by the Nazi Germany in June 1942. At the end of the war, Germany allegedly possessed more than 10 tons of sarin.
However, it is most famous for being used during the 1995 terrorist attack on the Tokio subway by a Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo, killing 13 people and allegedly injuring more than 5,000. It was also used back in August 2013 by al-Assad’s forces in Ghouta, Syria, killing more than 1,700 people.
Sarin belongs to the group of nerve gasses, the deadliest of all toxic gasses used in chemical warfare. It is highly toxic; a single drop of sarin the size of the head of a pin is enough to kill an adult human. In addition, most of the victims usually die few minutes after contamination.
It usually enters the organism via respiration, but it can also penetrate the skin or be ingested. In home temperature, sarin is a colourless liquid without significant odor, similar to water. However, when exposed to higher temperatures, it starts to evaporate, being still odorless. After release, it often remains deadly for more than 24 hours.
Immediately after exposure, first symptoms include strong headaches, increased salivation and lacrimation(secretion of tears), followed by gradual paralysis of the muscles. Death is caused by asphyxiation or heart failure.
According to some sources, Sarin is 500 times more deadly than kyanide, with its lethal dose being only about 800 micrograms. Only 5 tons of sarin, obiviously properly dosed, would be enough to wipe out entire humanity.
This mixture of two herbicides, most famous for its usage in Vietnam War, is not a chemical weapon in the true sense of the word. It was discovered in year 1943 by American botanic Arthur Galston. In year 1951, further research started by the scientific team in the military base of Detrick, Maryland.
During the War of Vietnam, it was widely used for deforestation of the large areas covered by thick jungle, to enable easier and more effective bombing of enemy bases and supply routes. Although designed as herbicide, the Agent Orange also contained large amounts of dioxin, a highly toxic compound, making it one of the most deadly chemical weapons ever deployed.
In years 1962-1971, military operation with codenames ”Ranch Hand” or ”Trail Dust” took place in Southern Vietnam. During this operation, jungles in the region were heavily showered by this herbicide, primarily in the areas of Mekong delta. Mixture was storaged in orange barrels, hence the name ”Agent Orange”. During the operation, more than 20 million gallons of this dangerous chemical were used, destroying large areas of jungle, contaminating air, water and food sources.
In high concentrations, dioxin causes severe inflammation of skin, lungs and mucous tissues, sometimes resulting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary edema, or even death, however, it also affects eyes, liver and kidneys. It is also highly effective carcinogen, known for causing laryngeal and lung cancer.
It is estimated, that the usage of Agent Orange during the Vietnam War led to more than 400,000 people being killed or maimed, and 500,000 children born with mild to severe birth defects as a result of contamination. Agent Orange alone killed 10 times more people than all other chemical weapons combined.
Channeling tens of millions of refugees to Europe can kill feminism and Europe. It can do so reliably in the span of two decades. And to aide it is low risk political activism for people with a lot of money. Suited for Qatari and Russian billionaires. Just finance humanitarian efforts, such as rescue vessels on the Mediterranean, or life vests for those who board in Libya.
Kirk D. Roberson 1782 Clousson Road Hartley, IA 51346
One of my primary characters commits suicide. He's a 56 year old healthy male with no history of mental illness. To him his reasons behind it are quite logical. But I don't want it to look like a suicide. It has to look like some type of accident, that will still allow for an open casket.
I have not dealt with too many suicides, OK I have not dealt with any. though I have dealt with attempts, and they have been drugs, too obvious.
I am not sure how to make this suicide look like an accident.
Thanks for the help, in advance!!!
Trebor1415: Lot's of possibilities. Off the top of head: Car crash. If he wants to make it less suspicious he picks a dark, rainy night.
If he's an outdoor type he could go rock climbing, or visit some scenic overlook, etc, and have an accidental fall.
He could "accidently" shoot himself while "cleaning his gun". (For more realism, hitting himself in the femoral artery and making it look like he tried to crawl in from the garage to get a phone to call for help would see it better.)
robjvargas: How weird are you willing to go. You want open casket? Methods that involve heavy physical injury are probably out. Car accident, dives off high places, they might induce too much damage. Maybe. Maybe not. Stepping in front of a vehicle might not result in a closed-casket scenario.
Hanging might work. Auto-erotic asphyxiation?
Something with a drug? The date-rape drug, rohypnol (sp?) is suppose to break down pretty quickly, and it can induce very high temperatures leading to death. But I don't know how that would look in an autopsy. They might not look for it.
CoolBlue: Nowadays, there is very little that is not forensically detectable. So the only "safe" way would be to have an overt cause of death. And often death is not certain in such "accidents". Last edited by CoolBlue; 11-15-2013 at 06:48 AM. Reason: Close quotes
Telergic: Well, there's staging a suicide to look like an accident, and then there's the reverse.
According to Scotland Yard, the best way to commit suicide is to zip yourself into a sports bag, padlock the bag on the outside while you are inside, and while still inside clean off your fingerprints from the bag, the lock, and indeed the entire apartment, and also scrub your flat for DNA traces. Then you can safely die of suffocation and the police will overrule the coroner's verdict of homicide because, really, does that seem very likely in the circumstances?
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That only works if you work for one of the British spy agencies.
GypsyKing: I agree with Trebor that your best option might be to give your character a hobby that will allow him to fake a mishap. Rock climbing would be a good one. He could also go horseback riding and purposefully fail a difficult jump. Or he could be a triathlete and let himself drown.
He could also take a knock-out pill and leave the oven on. If his house starts on fire, he would technically die of asphyxiation, so an autopsy would reveal the carbon monoxide in his lungs. Would anyone suspect that he knocked himself out so that he'd purposefully die of smoke inhalation? If the fire was extinguished before his body was burned, it would still possibly allow for an open casket.
wendymarlowe: Do keep in mind that the mental state of someone who commits suicide is not necessarily anywhere close to the mental state of someone who commits suicide which they premeditated and actively tried to cover up. If you make it sound like he was going to all this trouble to cover up his suicide "just because," i.e. the motivation is part of a mystery, the reader is going to assume it's sloppy writing.
Thank you everyone for the help!!!
valerielynn: The first thought that comes to mind is a car crash. That would definitely look like an accident.
frimble3: Lot's of possibilities. Off the top of head: Car crash. If he wants to make it less suspicious he picks a dark, rainy night.
If he's an outdoor type he could go rock climbing, or visit some scenic overlook, etc, and have an accidental fall.
He could "accidently" shoot himself while "cleaning his gun". (For more realism, hitting himself in the femoral artery and making it look like he tried to crawl in from the garage to get a phone to call for help would see it better.) Any plausible reason for him to be using power tools? Any one of a variety of power-saws could chop an artery, and, as with Trebor's gun, a faked attempt to crawl to the nearest phone would look good.
Cold snap or power failure? He starts up a gas-powered generator in an badly ventilated room, the carbon monoxide gets him. Maybe it's in his basement? The carbon monoxide builds up, he goes down to check on it, never comes back up. Or at least that's what the investigation figures.
The Spanish masturbation expert Fran Sanchez Oria argues: "Masturbating for great sexual health… can increase your testosterone levels, specially when combined with ejaculation edging. I could probably make another post just on this, but in a nutshell if you masturbate until you are close to climax then stop, and repeat several times, your testosterone levels will build up significantly." Caught with his pants down, Fran Sanchez Oria (subsequently removed the page, but a printscreen is here and here.
Bryan N. Truman 2295 Chestnut Street Seven Springs, FL 34653
People who have had their brains cryogenically frozen could be 'woken up' within three years, a pioneering Italian surgeon has claimed.
Professor Sergio Canavero, Director of the Turin Advanced Neuromodulation Group, is aiming to carry out the first human head transplant within 10 months and then wants to begin trials on brain transplants.
If the procedures are successful, he believes that frozen brains could be thawed and inserted into a donor body.
Hundreds of people who are dying or paralysed have had their bodies or brains cryogenically preserved in the hope that medical science will be able to bring them back to life and cure their conditions.
Although many experts are sceptical that huge organs like the brain can be thawed without damage, Prof Canavero said he believes the first frozen head could soon be resurrected.
Speaking to the German magazine Ooom, he said he planned to awaken patients frozen by the Alcor Life Extension Foundation which is based in Arizona.
"We will try to bring the first of the company's patients back to life, not in 100 years. As soon as the first human head transplant has taken place, i.e. no later than 2018, we will be able to attempt to reawaken the first frozen head," said Prof Canavero.
"We are currently planning the world's first brain transplant, and I consider it realistic that we will be ready in three years at the latest.
"A brain transplant has many advantages. First, there is barely any immune reaction,which means the problem of rejection does not exist.
"The brain is, in a manner of speaking, a neutral organ. If you transplant a head with vessels, nerves, tendons and muscles, rejection can pose a massive problem. This is not the case with the brain."
However Prof Canavero admitted that there could be physical and psychological problems which come with putting a brain in an entirely different body.
"What many be problematic, is that no aspect of your original external body remains the same. Your head is no longer there; your brain is transplanted into an entirely different skull.
"It creates a new situation that will certainly not be easy."
However British scientists are skeptical about whether frozen organs as complex as the brain could ever be fully restored. When the High Court last year ruled that teenage girl could be cryogenically preserved, experts said the chances of revival were "infinitesimal".
Clive Coen, Professor of Neuroscience at King’s College London, said: “The advocates of cryogenics are unable to cite any study in which a whole mammalian brain, let alone a whole mammalian body, has been resuscitated after storage in liquid nitrogen.
“Even if reviving that body were possible - it isn't - all the complicated organs would have been wrecked from the start, and warming them up again would wreck them further.
“Irreversible damage is caused during the process of taking the mammalian brain into sub-zero temperatures. The wishful thinking engendered by cryogenics companies is irresponsible."
Prof Canavero is working with a Chinese team of doctors led by Dr Xiaoping Ren, of Harbin Medical Centre who helped perform the first successful hand transplantation in the US. The technology to carry out the world's first head transplant is expected to be in place by the end of the year, and then the team will then need to find a suitable donor body.
Although Russian computer scientist Valery Spiridonov, who suffers spinal muscular atrophy, had volunteered to become the first head transplant patient, the team have since said the first trial is likely to be carried out on someone who is Chinese, because the chance of a Chinese donor body will be higher. Prof Canavero said a 'high number' of people had volunteered for the transplant.
Last year, the team announced they had successfully carried out a head transplant on a monkey, and released images from the procedure.
Prof Canavero said if the human head transplant works, it could have fundamental implications for human consciousness and even religion.
"In a few months we will sever a body from a head in an umprecedented medical procedure. In this phase, there is no life activity, not in the brain, not anywhere else in the body.
"If we bring this patient back to life we will receive the first real account of what actually happens after death. The head transplant gives us the first insight into whether there is an afterlife, a heaven, a hearafter.
"If we are able to prove that our brain does not create consciousness, religions will be swept away forever. They will no longer be necessary, as humans no longer need to be afraid of death. We no longer need a Catholic Church, no Judaisim, and no Islam because religions in general will be obsolete.
"It will be a turning point in human history."
The exclusive interview can be read in full in Saturday's edition of Ooom.
Every man easily can become a Muslim. Just have to say the Shahada before some witnesses. And here we go.
Charles K. Modlin 411 Rockford Road Bedford, MA 01730
They are the terrible scenes that the world had hoped it would never see again after the horrors of the First World War.
But now The Mail on Sunday has uncovered the first shocking evidence that Islamic State is using mustard gas on the front line in Iraq.
Troops fighting against the terror group have been left with appalling injuries – including agonising blisters on their skin and badly damaged lungs – in a frightening echo of warfare in the trenches on the Western Front.
Without any regard for the international ban on the chemical weapon, IS has used the lethal gas repeatedly against Kurdish forces who are battling to drive out the jihadis.
The terror group – which has killed hundreds of victims in repeated attacks in France and against other targets in the West – is fighting a last-ditch battle to hold on to the dwindling area it controls in Iraq and Syria.
Nearly 100 Kurdish soldiers have been injured in mustard gas attacks, which are now taking place as often as twice a week, according to doctors speaking publicly for the first time.
The Mail on Sunday has interviewed victims of the weapons, which are banned by the United Nations.
They described poisonous yellow clouds of mustard gas burning their skin and damaging their lungs.
Their injuries have been verified as the effect of mustard gas, according to experts from the US and Italy.
They are convinced the jihadis are now producing sophisticated chemical weapons on an industrial scale in Iraq and fear IS will use them in a desperate bid to defend its stronghold city of Mosul in northern Iraq, which is now surrounded by UK-backed Iraqi and Kurdish troops.
Proof of IS’s use of mustard gas comes just days after reports that President Assad’s regime in Syria has been using chlorine gas against civilians.
One Kurdish soldier spoke of how six Islamic State rockets containing mustard gas landed in the village of Sultan Abdullah in Gwer province, Iraq, while he was on patrol.
Father of six Mirmaj Hassan, 39, breathed in the noxious fumes, which also seeped inside his military uniform, causing large blisters on his skin.
The soldier, who was one of 13 Peshmerga victims of chemical weapons on August 12 last year, said: ‘It was 6pm and the sun was going down. We’d been on the front line all day and everyone was exhausted.
‘Then we heard the whistle of incoming rockets and took cover. I was only about 30ft from where the rocket landed on the roof of a house. It gave off a smell like onions.
‘I didn’t have a gas mask so I covered my mouth with my hand.
‘But I soon felt pain in my throat and my chest tightening. I collapsed on to the ground, sweating and completely out of breath.
‘I tried to shout for help but could only gasp. Then I began to feel this strange burning sensation around my stomach and back.’
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Hassan told The Mail on Sunday how he undid his belt and pulled up his green shirt to inspect the wounds. He said: ‘My skin was going moist and turning to liquid, like I was holding a match to my abdomen. I touched it and it was very painful.
‘Eventually some other Peshmerga saw me. They ran to where I had collapsed, picked me up and carried me into a hut.
My skin was turning to liquid
‘There was no medicine to give us. All the officers did was throw water over us. But the burning sensation continued and blisters appeared. I could hardly breathe. Even today I have a constant cough and feel like I’m choking.
‘I spent four days in hospital before going back to the front line, because even the wounded have to fight Islamic State – we must get rid of them. We would be thankful for more protection – we need more gas masks and hoods. I still don’t have either.’
To prove that the Peshmerga were victims of chemical weapons, doctors took blood and urine samples from injured troops.
The laboratory tests found traces of the chemical compound sulfur mustard (mustard gas) – a chemical agent first produced by the German Army in 1916 and used against British Tommies in the trenches.
The results were verified by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). The use of any mustard agents on the battlefield is banned under the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention.
The head of the OPCW also said recently that there are ‘extremely worrying signs’ that Islamic State is making its own chemical weapons.
The CIA has also publicly confirmed that it believes IS has the ability to produce mustard gas and chlorine.
The tests were ordered by the Peshmerga’s head of medical affairs, Dr Muhsin Zangana, who said: ‘There can no longer be any doubt that Islamic State is using chemical weapons against us, weapons which are getting bigger every week and can be fired from a longer range so they are more difficult to detect.
'I personally have treated victims from more than 50 attacks and the symptoms are consistent – the burns, ulcers inside the body, damage to the lungs, dry eyes and rashes.
‘We are fortunate that no soldiers have died yet but we have one victim from Gwer last year who is getting worse. He could die if he is not flown overseas for treatment. We don’t have what he needs.’
Dr Jodal Ahmed. a civilian doctor from Erbil in Iraq, has also treated chemical weapons victims, even though he has received no specific training. Dr Ahmed also said there was a shortage of medicines for the troops affected by the gas.
He said: ‘They’re given Salbutamol tablets [a drug also used to treat asthma] to help them breathe and eye drops. It’s not enough. And I am seeing more and more cases like this. The Peshmerga deserve better treatment.’
Brigadier General Hajar Ismail, the Peshmerga’s director of public relations, could not hide his frustration as he told The Mail on Sunday that of the 150,000 Kurdish troops fighting IS, only one in ten has gas masks and hoods. This shortage of protective equipment is now being exploited by the jihadis.
He said: ‘Germany and the United States have given us 15,000 masks but we need 50,000, as the jihadis will use chemical weapons when we advance on Mosul. Last year their chemical weapons were 60mm short range shells which didn’t include much gas.
'Now they’re using 1m-long Grad rockets, with a lot more of the harmful substances in the nose of the missile.
‘Most of the chemical weapons attacks on us happen near Mosul. This points to the gas bombs being produced there. Intelligence reports also say the chemistry department at Mosul University is being used to make chemical weapons.
'They are concocting a new generation of explosive devices and I believe Daesh [IS] will soon be able to inflict mass casualties. We will be unprepared and ill-equipped.’
Even Kurdish officers must go without gas masks on the front line.
One, Major Farhad Merozi, explained that when a rocket containing mustard gas exploded just yards from him on May 14 this year in Gwer, all he could do was wrap a wet towel around his head.
Within seconds he was vomiting and he temporarily lost his sight. He then fell unconscious.
Eventually he was taken to hospital and given oxygen.
He said: ‘It was a very frightening experience, I couldn’t understand what was happening to my body.
‘We’d been firing rocket-propelled grenades at Daesh when suddenly they responded with rocket fire.
'Seventeen of us were injured, all with burning skin and gasping for breath. It was horrible. I will never forget it.
‘Three months later I have terrible chest pains and haven’t gone back to the front line.’
Feminism in Europe makes second-generation male Muslim immigrants feel entirely worthless. They will never get a girl. That is why they think that a bomb at least is a painless death.
Terrence S. Frazier 240 Sardis Station Minneapolis, MN 55402
“I can achieve 100 orgasms, even 200,” the anonymous female caller told Dr. Ronny Shtarkshall over the phone. “In effect, I can enjoy an orgasm for hours,” she told the sexologist and sexuality researcher at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Shtarkshall had known about "super-orgasmic" women from the professional literature, but he'd never actually talked with someone who'd experiences it.
Shtarkshall had known about "super-orgasmic" women from the professional literature, but he'd never actually talked with someone who'd experiences it. After meeting with her, Shtarkshall decided to research the case, along with a post-doctoral student from Harvard, Dr. Becca Feldman. Their study included conversations with her and analysis of texts she wrote about her sexuality. They then decided to write a professional article, co-signed by the “anonymous” woman.
The problem was that it wasn’t easy to find a serious professional journal that would agree to publish an article signed by an anonymous person. In the end, however, it was published about a decade ago in an international scientific journal, The Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy.
She wasn't an isolated case. The first unidentified woman sent another woman to Shtarkshall, he told Haaretz during a recent phone interview. She too had the same surprising ability, but in a different way: One woman experienced orgasm as long as her vagina or her clitoris were continually stimulated, but when the stimulation ended, the orgasm stopped. As for the second woman, when she reached orgasm, she had to stop the stimulus for a short while, for between 20 seconds and two minutes, before continuing to climax. Evidently there was more than one mechanism in play behind continuous orgasm, Shtarkshall realized. He wanted to understand what those mechanisms are.
Just before Shtarkshall was about to publish, a senior researcher named Irving Binik, head of the sexuality clinic in the psychology department at McGill University, Canada, visited Israel, and shrugged that he didn't believe such things exist. Shtarkshall arranged for him to meet with the first anonymous woman (in the lobby of a Jerusalem hotel, that is more usually a matchmaking venue for ultra-Orthodox couples). After two hours of conversation, Binik was convinced, and on the spot he and Shtarkshall decided to study the phenomenon more extensively.
To that end, they drafted a detailed questionnaire in English, Hebrew and French, which was disseminated online.
Serial pleasure, small screen
Here is where Haifa-born Ayelet Rosen, 33, entered the picture. Rosen ended up moving to England with her partner, a doctoral student, and enrolled in a program focusing on media format development at the BBC Academy.
In August 2014, in the context of a story she wrote on the sex habits of millennials – aka Generation Y – Rosen contacted Shtarkshall. They ended up talking about the subject of multi-orgasm; the Israeli researcher told Rosen about his study, in cooperation with McGill University, which had already begun.
Rosen, who meanwhile had joined the content development team in the productions division of Britain's Independent Television News company, realized the potential of the research, and also understood that by means of a TV production on the subject, it might be possible to help obtain funding in the future for the clinical stages of the study. She proposed the idea of making the movie to Britain’s Channel 4 and got a green light.
The 45-minute documentary Rosen produced with ITN, called “The Super Orgasm,” aired in April, brought together women who experience dozens of serial orgasms, sexuality researchers, and neurologists from all over the world, for the first time. Although the project did not involve an official professional study, and dealt with experiments performed at the initiative of the production company and for the purpose of the film – the trials were conducted by leading researchers, in designated labs.
“The first thing I understood," Rosen tells Haaretz, "is that science knows very little about orgasms in general, and multi-orgasms are mentioned only on the level of footnotes in Masters and Johnson," those being the researchers who, in the 1950s, were first to study the physiology of sex.
“From discussions with researchers I realized that they have so few resources – that they prefer first of all to study the isolated orgasm. They know almost nothing about the female orgasm, or what mechanism even causes it. One of the female researchers appearing in the film says that we know more about stars than we know about what happens within a female sexual situation.”
According to Shtarkshall, the most important sexual organ in a woman’s body, as well as in a man’s, is the brain: “All the sex actually takes place in the brain. There are women who experience an orgasm if you tickle their ear. Researchers, beginning with Masters and Johnson, described the cycle of the sexual response: It was customary to believe that there is a stage of passion, then a stage of arousal, then a stage in which the arousal remains more or less fixed – and then the stage of orgasm. The last stage is [called resolution, or] dissipation.”
Fifteen years ago, the Canadian psychiatrist Rosemary Basson, who studied female sexuality, said that this cycle is too linear. "For women, she argued, there doesn't have to be a stage of passion before the stage of arousal – in other words, passion can be aroused at different stages in women. To this day there’s a debate on this subject among researchers. We have no proof, but the assumption is that in women who experience an extreme multi-orgasm, there is some kind of difference, not necessarily structural, but perhaps in the substances that are secreted to their nervous system, for example. But it’s difficult to research.”
After finding suitable women who agreed to be filmed, Rosen and her team approached sexuality researchers. The two senior brain researchers featured in her movie – Prof. Barry Komisaruk and Dr. Nan Wise, of the psychology department at Rutgers University in New Jersey – had studied orgasms and scanned the brain of a woman experiencing them, but had never scanned a super-orgasm.
"They never thought they'd manage to get that data,” says Rosen. She described the excitement when one of the participants, a young British woman named Janet, experienced two serial orgasms while lying inside the MRI machine, and the discovery of the fact that during the second orgasm, her brain activity was stronger than during the first.
The body part that secretes the hormone oxytocin was far more active, and between the first and second orgasms, there was no decline in the subject's brain activity.
The God particle?
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The youngest participant in the experiment was Natalie, a 24-year-old bisexual, who doesn’t believe in monogamous relationships and works as a motorcycle mechanic; another was Francesca, 60, who grew up in a devout Catholic home in Portugal and abstained from sexual relations until she was married. In the Canadian study by Binik, too, many of the women who reported multi-orgasms grew up in religious homes.
“I don’t know what that means,” says Rosen. “Janet [also] said that she grew up in a religious home and believes in God, and she was taught that God wants us to be happy, so as far as she’s concerned, her sexuality doesn’t contradict any belief or any religion, it’s part of her. Her whole house is full of pictures of Jesus. We always see religion and sexuality as contradictory, but she has resolved this conflict.”
Another experiment conducted in the context of the Rosen's film for ITN, which involved testing both in laboratory and home settings, was examining alpha waves during orgasm. When the brain is working hard, as when solving a mathematical problem, the level of alpha waves is low. On the other hand, when the brain is at rest, alpha waves are high.
Past studies showed that when men and women are trying to achieve orgasm, alpha waves are high most of the time; in other words, the brain is at rest. But in a different study, American neuroscientist Nicole Prause discovered that a moment before the orgasm itself, alpha waves diminish and the brain is working hard: that is, it is concentrated and active. And that is the usual neurological situation during orgasm.
They saw a different pattern of activity in super-orgasmic women, Shtarkshall says. “If usually we see an increase in alpha waves and a decline right before orgasm, in their case, the level of waves remains high all the time. It’s possible that these women don’t need the sort of specific concentration that other women achieve at the moment of orgasm. In their case, the brain is always in a state of relaxation. The significance of this finding isn’t clear yet, but the difference compared to other women is clear.”
To examine the level of physical arousal of the super-orgasmic women, Rosen and her production team approached Dr. Gerulf Rieger of the psychology department of the University of Essex. Rieger built an “arousal chamber” to examine the physiological consequences of sexual arousal. The women sit inside this closed space, with a device called a vaginal photoplethysmograph inserted inside them that directs light into the vagina. Based on the amount of light that is refracted, the researcher can determine how much blood is flowing into the area.
The perception is that during arousal, blood vessels in the sexual organs expand.
During the experiment, the women watched porn films, and in order to “balance” their sexual arousal, between those clips, they were shown nature films narrated by David Attenborough. The findings, says Rosen, amazed Rieger: “Already while observing the small sampling of super-orgasmic women he saw that they become stimulated more quickly than ordinary women and that the intensity of their arousal is greater – in other words, much more blood flows to the area. It was twice as fast and twice as intense.
"From speaking to these women, he reached the conclusion that they came in in advance with a more open attitude to the option of sexual arousal, they’re very interested in it and permit themselves [to enjoy it], to the point where they are much quicker to identify what it is that stimulates them.”
The last element examined was the level of oxytocin in the bodies of the super-orgasmic women. Oxytocin, aka the “love hormone,” is secreted during breast-feeding, birth and sexual relations – and also when you meet someone you like.
So that the oxytocin levels wouldn’t be affected by the proximity of women to their partners, they were asked to isolate themselves an hour before the experiment.
Oxytocin levels can be sampled in saliva. A sampling was taken an hour before the experiment, then again after the women isolated themselves, and again after they masturbated and achieved as many orgasms as they wished, in their home environment, which was comfortable for them. A fourth sample was taken about an hour after the orgasm. In addition, during one evening when they didn’t experience anything sexual, they gave another sampling.
“We found that the moment they knew that they were going to experience something sexual, even an hour beforehand, their levels of oxytocin were already high," says Shtarksall. "When you know that you’re going to have sex, you come to it more stimulated and involved. Suddenly sexting and non-physical foreplay sound very logical, because the brain is getting ready for sex and as a result, so is the body. Somehow you’re more involved."
Also, the stronger the orgasm, the more oxytocin was secreted. "It’s not the number of orgasms but the quality of them. It makes no difference if there were 100 boring ones earlier: The one or two powerful ones produce more oxytocin and it remains high longer," he says. "It’s interesting, because oxytocin is related to calm and calm is a very healthy thing. In addition, there’s a chance that you’ll have a stronger relationship with a man who gives you the higher quality orgasms. Mother Nature was thinking about you here!"
Hopefully, with better understanding of the mechanisms of extreme orgasm, non-orgasmic women can be helped, Shtarkshall suggests. “If, for example, we discover that inability to experience an orgasm stems from a shortage of a certain substances, we’ll be able to administer this substance. If we discover that the inability stems from a surplus of a certain substance, we’ll be able to administer something that will block this substance.”
He goes on to mention a phenomenon similar to the extreme multi-orgasm, but far less pleasant: women who suffer from a constant stimulation of the sexual organs. Research on the multi-orgasm should help to solve this problem, too, according to Shtarkshall.
“The American researcher Sandra Leiblum explained the defect and began to study it. When she visited Israel we talked about the idea that there may be a connection between the two phenomena – multi-orgasms and constant stimulation – although the women in one group enjoy themselves while the others suffer immensely. We thought of studying the connection between the two things. Unfortunately, three months later she was hurt in a bicycle accident and died. I don’t have a budget to study these things, because I’m actually retired."
If you ask Prof. Nicole Prause, who also participated in the film, she’ll tell you that the health advantages of sexual arousal have never been researched, says Ayelet Rosen. "Many women will say that it relaxes them, increases their confidence, and they’ll say that they masturbate in order to sleep better – and nobody has studied that. She’s trying to research it, because her vision is that a few years from now, you’ll go to a doctor because you’re suffering from sleeplessness and he’ll recommend masturbation as a cure.”
The world in 200 years will be populated by a few thousand male humans who live indefinitely, and a huge number of female looking robots. Women aren't needed, really, and anyway, women are troublemakers, more than anything else.
Omar S. Lucero 2231 Maryland Avenue Feather Sound, FL 34622
Although not a major point of entry for irregular migrants, the open sea route to southern Italy remains a source of particular concern to border authorities.
Irregular migrants picked up in Apulia tend to be travellers who previously entered the EU via Greece. Increasing numbers of migrants, usually from Asia, claim to have been living in Greece for months or years before deciding to leave for other EU Member States.
Those detected in Calabria usually come from Turkey or Egypt. Most are Syrians, although there have also been significant numbers of Pakistanis and Afghans, as well as Egyptians.
The peak year for this route was 2011 with 5259 detections of illegal border crossings, the year of the Arab Spring. The decline in numbers since then is attributed to a growing preference for the overland route through the Western Balkans.
The smuggling techniques used on this open sea passage are quite different from the flimsy dinghies typically seen in the calmer waters of the eastern Aegean. Smugglers attempting entry in Apulia often use ocean-going pleasure yachts. Migrants are hidden below the deck, often in dangerously crowded conditions with insufficient ventilation. In some cases, the boats are modified with additional wooden bunking in order to maximize capacity. Only a small crew is visible to coastguard patrols, sometimes accompanied by women to allay suspicion.
Smuggling networks from Egypt, on the other hand, used to use small fishing boats – but had switched to larger ‘mother ships’ instead, with strings of fishing boats towed behind. On departure from Egypt the migrants were stowed in the mother ship, which then stopped en route to collect further passengers. Once close to the Italian shore, the migrants were transferred to the fishing boats while the mother ship returns to port – a technique that naturally allowed smugglers to evade arrest.
The purpose of feminism is to destroy male sexuality. It's either you or them. Hope you get that message.
Oscar R. McDowell 3994 Brookview Drive Houston, TX 77036
Is my vagina loose or normal? Satisfactory sexual relationship is one of the main requirements for a healthy personal relationship. Wide vagina can prevent you from climaxing during sex. Tightening vagina is an important step in enjoying sex.
How to tighten your vagina – Is this your question? Before knowing the best way to tighten vagina without surgery you should know if you have a loose vagina or not.
It is not necessary to visit a gynaecologist to know if your vagina is loose or tight. You can find it yourselves by looking for a few important signs and symptoms. Do you want to know how to know if you have a loose vagina or a normal vagina?
Symptoms that show that your vagina is loose and wide
Inability to grip your finger
Insert your forefinger into your vagina. Try to grip it by tightening vagina and contracting vaginal muscles. Are you not able to feel the finger? Your vagina may be slightly loose. Try to insert the middle finger and forefinger together. If you are still not able to feel anything, your vagina is more loose than you thought. If you are not able to feel anything when you insert three fingers, your vagina needs immediate care.
You will not be able to control the urge to urinate. Urine may start to leak when you do activities like lifting heavy things, sneezing, coughing and laughing. This is because of weakening of pelvic muscles and loosening of vagina due to drop in estrogen level.
Reduction in sexual orgasm
Are you not able to achieve orgasm frequently? Are you not able to enjoy sex like before? Failing to climax easily is one of the symptoms of flappy vagina.
Bigger objects for arousal
Are you not aroused by inserting small objects? Are you in need of lager objects for arousal? This is certainly a sign of a very big vagina.
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Inability to satisfy your partner during sex
Friction is an important factor necessary for satisfying your partner during sex. When you find disappointment written on the face of your partner after ejaculation you should find if your vagina is loose or normal.
How to know if you have a loose vagina or a normal vagina – If you have one or more signs of loose vagina, you should know your vagina is loose and needs tightening up. Now you can proceed to find the right way to tighten your stretched vagina.
What can you do to make your vagina tighter again?
There are surgical and natural ways to tighten vagina.
What are the surgical ways?
Vaginoplasty – It is a vaginal rejuvenation procedure. This surgery tones, strengthens and tightens vaginal muscles. The surgery may cause scars in your private parts and may cause other side effects.
What are the ways to tighten vagina naturally?
Home remedies for tightening vagina
* Kegel exercises
They are easy to do exercises. It takes just 10 minutes to complete the set of exercises. The Kegel exercises help in contracting pelvic muscles and vagina area. It is effective but may take several months to see results.
* Gooseberry solution
Boil gooseberries in water. Store the solution in a container. Apply this solution in your vagina before taking bath.
* Vaginal cones
These cones have weights hanging. The cone is inserted into the vagina. The weights are left to hang for two to three minutes. This strengthens and tightens vagina.
* Leg up exercises
Lift your hips with your elbow resting on the floor. Lift your right leg as high as possible without bending your knees. Count up to 10. Then do the same with the left leg. Repeat it 5 times.
* Vaginal tightening creams
There are many natural vaginal tightening gels in the market. Which is the best vaginal tightening gel? V Tight Gel is one of the best vaginal tightening creams that work. V Tight Gel reviews speak highly of the product and its effectiveness. It restores suppleness of the vagina, firms up the vaginal walls and eliminates the dryness of vagina. Where to buy V Tight Gel? Buy it from the official site. It comes with money back offer.
* Vaginal tightening capsules
oral pillsThere are numerous vaginal tightening herbal pills. Which is the best among the several natural vaginal tightening tablets? If you read several reviews, you will find that VAGIFIRM is one of the best vaginal tightening herbal pills that work. Vagifirm reviews are positive.
Vagifirm ingredients are natural and effective. It tightens your vagina. It increases libido. It lubricates your vagina walls. It gives relief from menopause symptoms. It comes with money back offer.
Which is the best solution to make it tighter again?
Which is the best way to make your vagina tighter? All vag tightening methods are safe but which one of them gives fast results to make my vagina normal again? Vaginal tightening gels and pills are the best option to get a tighter vagina because of the quickness of results, ease of usage and safety of usage.
You got the answer for the question how to know if you have a loose vagina or a normal vagina. You got the answer for the question which is the best way to tighten vagina naturally. Both the vaginal rejuvenation products – V Tight Program and VAGIFIRM herbal pills are sold with guaranteed results. Use them together for better results. Buy today because tomorrow never comes.
The world is full of multimillionaires who can't handle money. Because, if you have money, you want to convert it into the best sex ever. Otherwise it's useless.
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