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Eddie C. Chadwick 4483 Rhode Island Avenue Washington, DC 20005
Kemi in an interview with International Business Times, says her sexual life and mental health were affected after she was mutilated as a child.
According to her, the grave act was committed on her at age five when a family member took she and her sister to meet a man who placed them on his lap and “then cut part of our vagina and clitoral area off.
"There was no anaesthetic and a sharp razor blade was used. I remember my sister and I screaming afterwards," she said. Adding, "We went home bleeding. Deep down, mom was not happy for some reason."
Olunloyo told IBTimes UK after years of resentment towards her mother, she finally confronted her in 2012. "She burst into tears telling me that our late paternal grandma ordered my dad to have us do it."
"It was a cultural barbaric act used to decrease the female libido. It caused me post-traumatic stress disorder for life. I don't experience orgasm during sex and when I tried to promote the use of sex toys among Nigerian women, men started attacking me saying I was discouraging African women 'from the real thing." "Sex is not important. I have no libido or urge to have sex and I've been celibate for 10 years. Millions of women in Nigeria go through this, but they cannot talk or be outspoken like me. It is shameful and a disgrace to them."
Lloyd D. Dillon 4684 Kenwood Place Pompano Beach, FL 33064
HP-200, which contains Mucuna pruriens endocarp, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Mucuna pruriens endocarp has also been shown to be more effective compared to synthetic levodopa in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. The present study was designed to elucidate the long-term effect of Mucuna pruriens endocarp in HP-200 on monoaminergic neurotransmitters and its metabolite in various regions of the rat brain. HP-200 at a dose of 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg/day was mixed with rat chow and fed daily ad lib to Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 for each group) for 52 weeks. Controls (n = 6) received no drug. Random assignment was made for doses and control. The rats were sacriﬁced at the end of 52 weeks and the neurotransmitters were analyzed in the cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and striatum. Oral administration of Mucuna pruriens endocarp in the form of HP-200 had a signiﬁcant effect on dopamine content in the cortex with no signiﬁcant effect on levodopa, norepinephrine or dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites- HVA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA in the nigrostriatal tract. The failure of Mucuna pruriens endocarp to signiﬁcantly affect dopamine metabolism in the striatonigral tract along with its ability to improve Parkinsonian symptoms in the 6-hydorxydopamine animal model and humans may suggest that its antiparkinson effect may be due to components other than levodopa or that it has an levodopa enhancing effect. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Of course, female sexuality is a merchandise. That's the nature of human reality. And it's the essence of culture. Because the alternative would be that men appropriate female sexuality by violence. And that's less pretty.
John H. Fulcher 1135 Duck Creek Road San Bruno, CA 94066
ROMA – Il Phizers Blue naturale esiste. Anzi, ne esistono ben sei varianti. Si chiamano griffonia, seronea repens, horny goat weed, maca, tribulus e butea superba. Sono sei piante che forniscono, sugli uomini, gli stessi effetti della pillola blu, ma costa di meno e ha meno controindicazioni.
Vediamole un po’.
EPIDEMIUM, noto anche come HORNY GOAT WEED (erba della capra appassionata): è un vasodilatatore naturale che permette di ottenere effetti rapidi e che durano a lungo. Il suo nome deriva dall’essere stato scoperto per il suo effetto sulle capre.
GRIFFONIA SIMPLICIFOLIA: questa pianta originaria dell’Africa viene usata anche come antidepressivo naturale: è, infatti, un precursore naturale della serotonina, neurotrasmettitore che ha riflessi su funzioni fisiologiche come sonno, umore, appetito e desiderio sessuale. I semi permettono agli uomini con eiaculazione precoce di controllare di più l’orgasmo, e quindi di proseguire il rapporto sessuale più a lungo
BUTEA SUPERBA: questa pianta originaria della Thailandia è usata da secoli come afrodisiaco naturale. Come nel caso dell’Epidemium, ha un effetti vasodilatatore ma non fa aumentare le frequenze cardiache. Può essere presa in capsule orali o in gel.
MACA: è una pianta originaria delle Ande. Le sue foglie vengono masticate per mantenere un fisico più prestante ad alta quota. Meglio assumerla di mattina, dal momento che è un eccitante come la caffeina. Oltre a favorire il desiderio sessuale stimola la produzione di spermatozoi e la loro mobilità, favorendo la fertilità maschile.
SERONEA REPENS: conosciuta anche come palmetto rosso, questa pianta aiuta nel caso di ipertrofia prostatica, problema che affligge molti uomini dopo i 40 anni, e che consiste nell’ingrossamento della prostata e nella difficoltà a mantenere l’erezione.
TRIBULUS: questa pianta indiana è in grado di attivare il testosterone, utile per ravvivare il desiderio sessuale e contrastare la stanchezza, anche negli sportivi. Il Tribulus è efficace anche come anabolizzante e stimolante sessuale maschile. Va però consumato puro per evitare effetti collatterali.
This site teaches an understanding of reality. Reality is brutal. Death is often brutal. And if death isn't brutal for the way it happens, then it is still brutal as a fact of life. We are all goners.
Darrin S. Markowitz 2473 Paul Wayne Haggerty Road Metairie, LA 70006
Kawinnart Sae Zong, 33, was absolutely furious after finding out her husband was cheating on her with several different women.
To enact her revenge, Kawinnart waited until her husband, Niran Sae Wang, fell asleep around 2am at their marital home.
She then took a kitchen knife to the love rat’s tackle, completely dismembering his manhood.
After neighbours were alerted to the situation by Wang’s screams, they found him writhing around on the floor in agony, suffering from severe bleeding.
The neighbours took the ironically named Wang to Lampang Hospital, which specialises in penis reattachment.
But relatives of the scorned bride found her locked in a room in their house in Santisuk Village, Thailand.
In her blind rage, Kawinnart had drank pesticide and had to be taken to hospital, police revealed.
She was immediately taken to hospital but died from poisoning.
Surgeons managed to reattach Wang’s penis and he was able to urinate again.
But, in a parting gift from his late wife, he will never be able to have sex again due to ligament damage.
The Spanish masturbation expert Fran Sanchez Oria argues: "Masturbating for great sexual health… can increase your testosterone levels, specially when combined with ejaculation edging. I could probably make another post just on this, but in a nutshell if you masturbate until you are close to climax then stop, and repeat several times, your testosterone levels will build up significantly." Caught with his pants down, Fran Sanchez Oria (subsequently removed the page, but a printscreen is here and here.
Lance C. Coronado 231 Bel Meadow Drive Los Angeles, CA 90017
As a woman, your lady-bits is going to get lose as you get older, this is due to the muscles that work for making the vulva tight become less efficient as you grow older. Therefore, if your pussy is not tight today as it used to be a decade ago, there is no need to worry so much because it is something that is perfectly natural. This is something that happens to all women as they age. Instead, you should focus on finding a way to keep your vag tight as you age.
2. Giving birth
Your pelvic muscles are usually put under a lot of pressure every time you give birth. That is why your cervix is likely to get lose when you give birth. The higher the number of children that you give birth to, the higher the likelihood that you are going to have a lose cervix. This does not mean that all women end up with a loose vagina after giving birth. There are many women who are lucky to get back the grip they had before giving birth. The vaginal tightness of the pelvic floor can be affected tremendously if you give birth to many children in a short period. However, this does not mean that nothing can be done to make your vulva tight again.
3. Medical conditions
There are some medical conditions that can make a woman’s vulva flappy. Although this happens rarely, it is something that you should not rule out if you have a loose cervix. However, you should not make a conclusion without being examined by a doctor. You can only know if you are having a flappy pussy because of a medical condition if you are examined by a qualified medical professional.
What are my options?
As you can see above, there are a number of reasons why a vagina becomes loose or flappy. There is no way around it as it will happen to a woman one way or the other. The only thing that you can do is to prepare yourself as much as possible and to make sure that you know the effective ways to get it back.
Natural and Healthy Daily Habits
Most women do not know that everyday things can help in fighting this problem, things like proper exercise, diet as well as something as simple as drinking water can help in slowing down this body issue. These habits may seem little but it is proven by science that it works every single time. Our bodies are complicated but the solutions for loose vaginas are quite simple really.
Vaginal Tightening Creams
You can also go for a quick solution like vaginal tightening creams which have been proven to be safe and effective. There are quite a number of products out there right now that work but the most effective one that we have tried is the V-Tight gel. This particular product is made from all natural ingredients and it is completely safe to use to counter this problem that women all over the world are having. You can read my personal review of the V-Tight Gel product right here to learn more about the works of this amazing creation.
To understand life, you first have to understand death. This is why we include images of death. The best we can hope for, is that death will be comfortable.
Chester K. Shaw 2049 Catherine Drive West Fargo, ND 58078
Certain recent events in Iraq have elevated long-standing fears that terrorist groups may use poisonous chemicals, especially elemental chlorine, as toxic weapons against vulnerable populations. These concerns rest on a solid factual basis: many chemicals produced for industrial purposes are inherently dangerous due to their possession of one or more of the following properties: reactivity, flammability, explosiveness, toxicity, or carcinogenicity. In particular, the toxic industrial gases anhydrous ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, and elemental chlorine (often referred to as toxic inhalation hazards, or TIH) are of utmost concern from both safety and security standpoints. Any of these chemicals when released in the course of an accident or a deliberate attack can form a toxic gaseous plume that when carried by wind is capable of inflicting potentially catastrophic loss of life on the population in its path. The worst industrial accident in history is illustrative: 40 metric tons of methyl isocyanate was released from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, on December 3, 1984. The resulting plume killed at least 3,000 people downwind and injured more than 100,000. A sufficiently large release of elemental chlorine may be capable of exacting a comparable toll, particularly if it were to be discharged in a highly populated civilian area.
This issue brief describes the properties, hazards, and the legitimate applications of chlorine, as well as its use for weapons purposes during World War I and currently in Iraq. The vulnerability of America's chemical infrastructure to deliberate attack (including the facilities that produce, consume, and transport chlorine), as well as efforts currently underway to achieve infrastructure security, are also examined. The brief concludes with an evaluation of alternative approaches to mitigating the potential threat posed by a deliberate chlorine release.
Properties of Chlorine
Chlorine (Cl) is a highly reactive, pale green gas produced industrially by the electrolysis of readily available aqueous sodium chloride (table salt). Worldwide, the annual production of chlorine totals approximately 55 million metric tons. In 2006, the American chemical industry produced 12.2 million metric tons of chlorine, making it one of the ten most produced chemicals in the United States by weight. Chlorine and its derivative chemicals serve myriad functions in modern society. The most important use of chlorine itself is as a disinfectant; for example, chlorine is employed worldwide in drinking water treatment facilities. In addition, chlorine derivatives (materials containing chlorine atoms chemically bound to other elements) are used as bleaching agents, construction materials (especially polyvinyl chloride, or PVC), high purity silicon precursors (e.g. trichlorosilane) for use in computer chip manufacture, pharmaceutical compounds (including "blockbuster" drugs such as Singulair, Plavix, and Norvasc), and many other functional materials.
The high toxicity of chlorine gas tempers the many beneficial uses of the chemical. Chlorine gas is heavier than air, and therefore will disperse slowly into the atmosphere after release. Because chlorine is water soluble, exposure to the gas irritates the mucous membranes and eyes at concentrations (in air) of under 3 parts per million (ppm)., Moderate irritation of the upper respiratory tract occurs at 5-15 ppm, followed by chest pain, vomiting, and dyspnea at 30 ppm. Above 50 ppm, lung inflammation and pulmonary edema occurs. Chlorine is deadly at concentrations of several hundred ppm or higher. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, a chlorine concentration of 10 ppm is considered to be immediately dangerous to life or health.
Military and Terrorist Use of Chlorine
In what many consider to be the dawn of modern chemical warfare, chlorine was first employed as a "choking agent" in the early days of World War I. On April 22, 1915, during the second battle of Ypres, the German military released approximately 168 metric tons of chlorine from 5,730 buried gas cylinders. The heavy green plume was carried by prevailing winds to the Allied lines, where French and French Algerian soldiers, not suspecting a chemical attack, were taken by surprise and quickly overwhelmed by the chlorine. The attack claimed the lives of at least 800 soldiers, and injured thousands more. While this incident underscores the potential lethality of chlorine, both sides soon realized that chlorine is not a militarily effective chemical weapon against a prepared adversary. In particular, chlorine possesses both a visible color and a strong odor, which alerts people of its presence and enables avoidance. Moreover, the effects of chlorine exposure may be completely or somewhat mitigated using simple countermeasures, such as wearing a gas mask or even covering the nasal passages with a wet cloth. Therefore, chlorine was quickly abandoned in favor of more fearsome chemical agents (e.g. phosgene and mustard gas). Despite its nefarious usage, its widespread manufacture and distribution for industrial and sanitary purposes has continued.
In Iraq, militias or terrorists have detonated bombs rigged to cylinders containing chlorine that originally were intended for water treatment and other industrial uses, with the intention of dispersing the gas over their targets (primarily Iraqi police and civilians). The US military believes that Aterrorist groups affiliated with Al Qaeda are primarily responsible for these types of attacks. According to the United Nations Monitoring, Inspection, and Verification Commission (UNMOVIC), at least 10 attacks involving chlorine have occurred in Iraq up to June 1, 2007, resulting in dozens of civilian deaths and an unknown number of injuries. An attack on June 3, 2007 targeted a United States military forward operating base and resulted in making 65 US service members ill from chlorine exposure. The perpetrators have used relatively small, easily transportable quantities of chlorine in the attacks, no more than several tons. Deaths have been attributed primarily to the effects of the explosives themselves, not the chlorine. It is reasonable to assume that the efficacy of these attacks will increase as terrorists modify their methods of chlorine dispersion based on past experience.
The attacks in Iraq utilizing chlorine have re-raised simmering questions in the United States: Is the country's chemical infrastructure, especially the sub-sector that makes and stores elemental chlorine, vulnerable to attacks by terrorist elements that would result in the large-scale release of TIH chemicals over population centers? Would facilities where chlorine is stored be attractive to those who seek to harm civilians?
Chlorine presents both disadvantages and some advantages to domestic terrorists. On the one hand, chlorine is not nearly as potent a toxin as other chemical weapons used in terrorist attacks, such as the fluoroorganophosphate nerve agent sarin released on the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995 by the religious cult Aum Shinrikyo, killing 12. However, nerve agents require substantial finances, advanced equipment, appropriate chemical precursors, and personnel with specialized training in synthetic organic chemistry to prepare. Even then, nerve agent synthesis and dispersion is non-trivial. For example, Aum Shinrikyo used impure sarin coupled with a crude and relatively ineffective delivery system for the subway attack, despite mustering all the resources mentioned above. On the other hand, chlorine does not need to be chemically synthesized (given its abundance), and as a gas does not require active aerosolization for efficient dispersal. Most importantly, a large release of chlorine may inflict mass casualties on unprepared civilians. According to a 2004 report by the Homeland Security Council, a deliberate release of 60,000 gallons of liquefied chlorine from an industrial facility in a highly populated area may result in 17,500 civilian deaths, while the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates that a "worst-case" chemical release would result in fewer than 10,000 deaths.
Chemical Facility Security
According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the United States there are approximately 15,000 facilities, including about 2,000 water systems, which store more than the threshold quantities of hazardous chemicals necessary to trigger EPA regulation. A "worst-case" chemical release from any one of 123 such facilities could expose more than 1,000,000 people to toxic gases. In the aftermath of September 11th, the chemical industry has recognized its potential vulnerability and moved rapidly to enhance facility security. In 2002, the American Chemistry Council (ACC), a chemical industry association whose members control approximately 2,000 facilities, established the Responsible Care[®] Security Code, a mandatory private security initiative. The Security Code requires member facilities to complete vulnerability assessments, perform physical security enhancements, invite an independent, third party audit of these enhancements, conduct employee training and drills, and perform periodic security self-audits. These requirements apply to members of the Chlorine Institute, a trade association and Responsible Care[®] partner whose membership includes 98% of chlorine producers and 100% of chlorine packagers in the United States. According to the ACC, its companies have invested about $3 billion in security improvements since September 11th, and all member facilities have completed security upgrades and subsequent independent audits.
Although private security initiatives have garnered justifiable praise, they are also widely viewed as inadequate. Investigative journalists have easily penetrated dozens of chemical facilities nationwide, including many housing chlorine, over the past several years. For example, in 2003, a reporter was able to approach storage tanks holding approximately 1,000 tons of chlorine gas at the Sony Technology Center in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. In 2005, reporters from the New York Times were able to approach and loiter near chlorine storage tanks on an industrial site in densely populated Northern New Jersey, only miles from New York City. In addition to the gaps in physical security, facility employees and emergency response personnel are often inadequately prepared to handle a deliberate chemical release. Clearly, comprehensive chemical security requires, in addition to private initiatives, the participation of the public sector in order to safeguard the public most effectively.
At the federal level of government, DHS is responsible for chemical sector security. Until very recently, however, DHS had not received a Congressional mandate to implement and enforce industry-wide security measures. The situation changed in October 2006, when President Bush signed the Homeland Security Appropriations Act, H.R. 5441, which gave DHS interim (3 year) authority to regulate security at chemical facilities. On April 2, 2007, DHS issued the interim final rule regulating chemical facility security, known as the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards. The rule requires facilities possessing a threshold quantity of one or more of 342 chemicals of interest, including chlorine, to file a report known as a "top screen" with DHS. For chlorine, this threshold level currently is 1,875 lbs or more. Using this data, DHS will perform a risk assessment and categorize "at risk" facilities according to a tiered system, with Tier 1 facilities considered the highest risk and Tier 4 facilities the lowest. A number of factors are considered in the assessment, including the type and amount of chemical(s) stored as well as the layout and location of the facility. DHS currently estimates that 5,000-8,000 facilities will be assigned a ranking in the tier system, with fewer than 1,000 assigned to Tiers 1 & 2. The facilities assigned to a risk tier will be required to submit vulnerability assessments and site security plans, subject to DHS verification, with failure to comply resulting in daily fines and/or shutdown of the facility in violation. Chemical manufacturers have embraced the new rule's risk-based approach, although others, including environmental groups, have highlighted several apparent weaknesses., For example, the rule contains no timetable for compliance, no whistleblower protections, and may preempt more stringent state and local regulations. Furthermore, the rule is not applicable to water and waste treatment facilities that utilize chlorine for disinfection, and does not require these or other chemical facilities to consider replacing chlorine with safer alternatives (see below). Recent thefts of chlorine cylinders from a California water treatment facility have served to underscore the final point.
Security of Chlorine Rail Shipments
Industrial chemicals, like all commodities, must be transported from production facilities to various consumers. For TIH chemicals such as chlorine, freight railroad offers the most viable transportation option for large-scale shipment. Of the approximately 12 million tons of chlorine produced annually in the United States, almost 3 million tons are shipped by rail, usually in 90 ton pressurized tank cars.6 Rail shipment of hazardous materials (hazmat) is very reliable; 99.997% of the ca. 1.8 million annual hazmat shipments in the United States arrive without incident. Although rail accidents involving chlorine are exceedingly rare, when chlorine tank cars are breached, the consequences often are fatal. On June 28, 2004, near San Antonio, Texas, a head-on collision of two trains resulted in a chlorine tank car breach. Two people died of chlorine inhalation, and 50 more were hospitalized for exposure. On January 6, 2005, in Graniteville, South Carolina, another head-on collision resulted in the derailment of three cars containing chlorine. The resultant chlorine plume killed 8 people, injured 240 more, and led to the evacuation of 5400 people from the spill area.
The railroad infrastructure (including trains, tracks, stations, etc.) is vast and relatively accessible, a necessity for rapid and inexpensive exchange of people and goods. The US rail system is comprised of approximately 171,000 miles of track and covers an area of 3,200 square miles. The open nature of rail systems renders them particularly prone to attacks by terrorists and other groups, as no feasible security plan can possibly protect the entire infrastructure simultaneously and at all times. The RAND Corporation estimates that 181 terrorist attacks against railroads worldwide occurred in the period between 1998 and 2003. Most attacks were directed against transit systems, as exemplified by the more recent bombings of the Madrid, London, and Mumbai commuter rail systems. The US freight rail system is as vulnerable as the European rail systems, and many lines pass through densely populated, high threat urban areas (HTUA's), most notably in the Northeastern corridor. Given the large quantities of chlorine shipped by rail, as well as the potentially catastrophic consequences of a large chlorine release, chlorine-containing tanker cars may represent an attractive target for terrorists.
Freight rail security, especially hazmat and TIH chemical transport, has attracted concern since September 11th and, even more so, after the Graniteville, S.C. chlorine accident in 2005. The freight rail industry, through programs initiated by the Association of American Railroads (AAR), has taken a more proactive stance on security issues since September 11th. The Terrorism Risk Analysis and Security Management Plan designed by AAR forms the basis for post-9/11 freight rail security. The plan includes over 50 security enhancements, addressing a number of general issues such as physical security, risk assessment, communications, and enhanced employee security training. The railroads also, through the Transportation Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program (TRANSCAER) and the ACC's Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (Chemtrec), train and inform emergency responders to help them deal with hazmat emergencies. With respect to chlorine and other TIH chemicals, the Union Pacific railroad recently signed a memorandum of understanding with Dow Chemical to upgrade the TIH railcar fleet and procedures for TIH transport. The memorandum calls for the installation of global positioning satellite units on all TIH tank cars, the design of a new, more robust tank car for TIH chemicals, as well as a reduction in the time that TIH tank cars lay idle in urban areas.
There has existed considerable variation in the approaches of local and federal governments to the threat of chlorine rail shipments. Many local governments, particularly HTUA's, are examining the possibility of banning chlorine rail shipments in proximity to highly populated areas. Citing the threat of chlorine, the Washington, D.C. city council voted on February 1, 2005 to ban all hazmat shipments within 2.2 miles of the Capitol, thus forcing rail companies to reroute shipments of chlorine around the city center. CSX Transportation challenged the law in court and received an injunction, which remains in effect as of this writing. The railroad industry argues that: (1) rerouting increases the risk of accidental of deliberate hazmat exposure, due to increased mileage, (2) rerouting simply shifts exposure risk to other populations, and (3) regulatory variations at each locality would impose significant cost and time burdens on the industry. The federal government, represented by the Department of Justice, supported the railroad industry position in this case, arguing that the regulation of interstate commerce is its Constitutional responsibility. The federal agency responsible for freight rail security, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), has not yet sought to force railroads to reroute chlorine and other TIH chemicals around HTUA's, as it currently is not currently required to do so by law. Rather, TSA and the Department of Transportation (DOT) have issued voluntary security action items to guide private railroad efforts to secure chlorine and other TIH railcars. TSA is also engaged in formulating rules and pilot programs in cooperation with the railroad industry, aimed at reducing the potential for attack on chlorine tankers. In conjunction with other federal, state, and local government agencies, TSA is currently conducting comprehensive reviews of rail corridor security, with a focus on HTUA rail corridors. However, many have perceived federal funding for surface transportation security, including rail security, to be inadequate. The American Public Transportation Association noted in early 2007 that the federal government has allocated $549 million for rail transit security (including both passenger and freight rail security) since September 11, 2001, in contrast to over $24 billion for aviation security.
Although prior security efforts have no doubt made a positive impact on rail security, freight railroads, and the chlorine transported on them, remain poorly protected. Publicly disclosed reports and media investigations over the past five years have identified gaping vulnerabilities in freight rail security. For example, a 2006 report published by the Citizens for Rail Safety (a public interest group) concluded that rail facilities are not sufficiently secure: cars containing hazmat, including TIH such as chlorine, often sit idle and unprotected, rail workers are poorly trained with respect to security, and emergency responders and citizens are ill-prepared for a hazmat emergency. In early 2007, a reporter from the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review published an article describing how he gained access to a number of hazmat-containing (including chlorine) railcars throughout the country. The reporter was not stopped by employees or rail police, and found hazmat-containing railcars unprotected on rails controlled by 12 railroads. These reports followed the publication in 2005 of two Teamsters Rail Conference surveys of rail workers, which reported significant physical security lapses and a notable lack of security training for workers.,
Partially in response to the problems cited above, the US Congress passed new homeland security legislation (H.R. 1: Improving America's Security Act of 2007) on July 27, 2007. President Bush has indicated that he will sign the bill into law in August 2007. The legislation will provide significant enhancements in TIH rail transportation security. Provisions in the legislation call for significantly enhanced funding for freight rail safety and security, including hazmat transportation security, infrastructure improvement, and research and development aimed at secure rail car technologies. Specifically, language in the bill encourages the adoption of wireless communications to track the positions of TIH railcars and monitor their status in real-time. Furthermore, DHS and the DOT must require rail carriers shipping TIH chemicals to develop and submit risk mitigation plans to be enacted when the Homeland Security Advisory System threat levels are high or severe. These plans are to include rerouting of TIH chemical shipments away from high consequence targets, including densely populated areas, landmarks, and other important national resources, as designated by DHS. The legislation also calls for the establishment of a "rail worker security training program" and introduces federal whistleblower protections to protect rail employees who report rail security lapses and violations. This legislation promises to mitigate some of the problems currently facing rail security, but the ongoing evolution of public and private measures must continue.
Inherently Safer Technologies
An alternate approach to mitigating the risk posed by chlorine may be to reduce levels of chlorine consumption by replacing chlorine with inherently safer technologies (ISTs). As noted in a 2006 study by the National Academy of Sciences, "The most desirable solution to preventing chemical releases is to reduce or eliminate the hazard where possible, not to control it." The adoption of ISTs to replace TIH chemicals is strongly supported by a number of interested parties, including environmental groups and the railroad industry. Depending on the industrial application, chlorine may in fact be readily replaced with cost-effective alternatives. According to a 2006 study by the Center for American Progress, 207 waste treatment plants and drinking water facilities have replaced chlorine gas with safer disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) and ultraviolet light since 1999. Adoption of ISTs not only eliminates the TIH risk of chlorine at the chemical facility, but also reduces the risk of chlorine release in transit. For example, since 1999, 25 water facilities in the United States that previously received chlorine shipments by freight rail have switched to ISTs, and six others plan to do so. Despite this progress, over 2,000 water treatment facilities continue to use chlorine gas, with 37 continuing to receive freight rail shipments. These facilities should be encouraged to adopt ISTs, especially in light of the current situation in Iraq and the thefts of chlorine in California in 2007 (see above).
However, chlorine cannot be easily replaced with IST in totality due to its chemical versatility. Notably, water treatment accounts for only about 5% of chlorine consumption. Chlorine remains a central ingredient in the manufacture of other chemicals and materials, most notably plastics, and a cost-effective replacement may not be apparent in many cases. In addition, a main byproduct of chlorine manufacture, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), is itself an important industrial chemical (the chlorine production process is known as the Chlor-Alkali process for this reason). Eight million metric tons of sodium hydroxide was produced in the United States in 2006. Thus, an analysis of chlorine replacement by IST must explore the economic impact of lowered chlorine and sodium hydroxide production. The replacement of chlorine by IST is a worthy pursuit, but it will be a long-term endeavor.
It is indisputable that should a large chlorine release such as the Graniteville accident take place in the future, it would pose a substantial danger to the public. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate convincingly that chlorine-containing facilities, whether they are chemical plants or railroad infrastructure, may be infiltrated with ease and regularity by trespassers. It may be argued that there exist more readily accessible targets for terrorist attack, including even smaller quantities of chlorine transported by truck. However, given the toll that a large-scale chlorine release could inflict on a population, facilities and railcars containing multi-ton quantities of chlorine warrant increased attention. The DHS and TSA have both worked well with industry to create voluntary chemical security guidelines, yet to date neither agency has imposed stringent regulations governing chlorine security. The establishment of a coherent national policy (which adequately addresses the concerns of individual localities) regarding the issue of TIH railcar rerouting around HTUA's is particularly vital. The recently approved federal legislation addresses rerouting of TIH shipments in times of elevated threat, but a permanent, satisfactory solution for a non-threat environment will also be required. Further, the new Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards issued by DHS do not require the chemical industry to examine adopting ISTs to replace chlorine and other TIH chemicals. While chlorine replacement with an IST should not necessarily be mandatory, incentives should be considered to persuade the chemical industry to adopt safer practices. The federal government should also consider an increase in funding for research aimed at the development of ISTs. If a viable, cost effective IST exists for a given chemical process, it is in the best interest of the chemical industry to adopt it of their own accord in order to safeguard employees, facilities, and the surrounding communities. Increased funding for fundamental research and development of ISTs will hasten this progression. Finally, perhaps the best countermeasure against a large attack using chlorine or other TIH chemicals is public awareness and education. Militarily, it has been known for 80 years that the deleterious effects of chlorine may be attenuated using simple methods. Both private industry and governments at all levels, especially those with chlorine facilities in their jurisdictions, should enhance education and outreach efforts to the public regarding appropriate courses of action (e.g. shelter in place protocols) in the case of a chlorine release incident.
Of course, prostitutes are needed. Give male scum and dregs a chance to fuck, so they will keep away from the good girls which are for us, the elite.
Eugene K. Blakely 2965 Virginia Street Elk Grove Village, IL 60007
Distraught and depressed after the break-up of a relationship, Kim Walton surfed the internet until she found euthanasiaincambodia.com.
"In Cambodia anything is possible," it read. "For those of you who prefer to take charge of your own destiny, come to Cambodia! Live your life the way you want and end it when you are ready."
Mrs Walton, 46, a mortgage adviser, who was divorced more than 20 years ago, sent an e-mail to the site operator with the simple subject heading "Death". A brief correspondence ensued.
Within a fortnight she had left her home in Penn, Bucks, and was travelling 6,000 miles to Kampot, a quiet, dilapidated riverside town.
There, several days later, she wrote a five-page suicide note and overdosed on medicines and alcohol in a £5-a-night guesthouse.
Her sister is convinced that had it not been for the website she would still be alive. "We were very close," said Sally Spring, 46. "She couldn't have done it to me in this country. She would never have put us in a situation where we might find her body."
The relationship that had so upset her had lasted only two months, she added. "If she had been here I would have got her through it," she said. "There's nothing we can do to bring Kim back but I just want the website closed down.
"Any vulnerable person could see it and I don't want any other family to suffer. It's just got to be stopped. It's disgusting and it beggars belief."
The site contains a detailed description of an elasticated plastic bag, available through it for £55, and helium gas to ensure a "peaceful and painless death".
It is operated by Roger Graham, a 57-year-old American former arts and antiques dealer from Paradise, California, where he founded an assisted euthanasia society.
He moved to Cambodia two and a half years ago in response, he says, to the US invasion of Iraq. He adopted the name "Tola", bestowed on him by a bar girl.
According to a legal opinion he obtained from a law firm in Phnom Penh, the Cambodian capital, the country has no law against assisted suicide.
On the site, which he has taken off-line after provincial authorities filed a defamation action against him, he said: "I am not going to pull any switches. I will do whatever it is that is necessary, within the law and my own comfort level, for you to have a satisfying end-of-life experience. I let you make all of your own choices. It is your life."
He asked for £14,000 in charitable donations from potential users of his service.
At his cafe on the bank of the Kampot river, he said: "I don't put the stigma on death that most people have. Death is simply the end point of life. To deny it exists is to be afraid of it, is to be ridiculous. Cambodia is a good country. If you are going to die, come here, leave some money.
"I will do whatever I can to make their experience enjoyable but it remains up to them what they want to do, when they want to do it, how they want to do it."
When his time comes, he added, he will kill himself.
"I'm not going to go plugged into some machine. I don't intend to do it tomorrow, but I might. It's my choice."
He does not differentiate between the terminally ill and those who want to die for other reasons.
"I don't care if you have a problem or not, that's not for me to decide, it's your life."
He declined to answer when asked if he had ever helped anyone to die in America. But he insisted that even though Mrs Walton went to his cafe when she arrived in Kampot, she never broached suicide, or revealed herself as the e-mail sender, and he never saw her again. No witnesses have contradicted him.
"It may sound implausible, but it's true," said Mr Graham. "The inference is I was involved, and I was not."
She did not give him any money or ask him to make any charitable donations for her, he said, and independent witnesses say that all the money she had with her was returned to her family.
No other foreigner is known to have committed suicide in Kampot since Mr Graham arrived and, while he receives e-mails on the subject "all the time", he is not aware of anyone else coming to the town due to the site. He suggested that euthanasia tourism could be "positive" for Cambodia.
Others are revolted by the concept. When the website became public knowledge after Mrs Walton's death in September a third of Kampot's expatriate population signed a petition calling on the authorities to take action.
Prosecution authorities say they will question Mr Graham over alleged defamation soon. But Kampot's vice-commissioner of police, Lt-Col In Chiva, admitted that they had been unable to find any law against the website itself.
Puth Chandarith, the governor of Kampot, said his legal action was for defamation and "false statements that Cambodia is the best place to commit suicide".
If the action failed, he could revoke Mr Graham's business licence.
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The foundation of the "enhanced interrogation" program used by the Bush administration after 9/11 is a torture manual used to train U.S. military personnel to withstand brutal interrogation techniques if captured by the enemy during wartime, as reported by Jason Leopold and Jeffrey Kaye at Truth-out.org.
The 37-page document document, called the Pre-Academic Laboratory (PREAL) Operating Instructions, was originally prepared by the Department of Defense's (DOD) Joint Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA) and used by instructors in the JPRA's Survival Evasion Resistance Escape (SERE) in role-playing scenarios with U.S. military personnel.
Air Force Col. Steve Kleinman, a career intelligence officer considered one of the DOD's best interrogators as well as a former SERE instructor and director of intelligence for JPRA's teaching academy, said that using these teaching techniques in real-life interrogations amounts to torture.
"In SERE courses, we emphatically presented this interrogation paradigm as one that was employed exclusively by nations that were in flagrant violation of the Geneva Conventions and international treaties against torture," Kleinman said. "We proudly assured the students that we - the United States - would never resort to such despicable methods."
After several meetings of top Bush administration officials, seven techniques from the PREAL manual — attention grasp, walling, facial hold, facial slap, cramped confinement, wall standing and stress positions — ended up in the August 2002 legal opinion of Justice Department attorney John Yoo and Assistant Attorney General Jay Bybee that is widely referred to as the "torture memo."
Administration officials also chose to enhance the intensity of these techniques: the PREAL manual states that "The maximum time allowed for a student to be in cramped confinement in 20 minutes," but the Yoo memo states that confinement "in the larger space can last up to eighteen hours; for the smaller space confinement lasts no more than two hours."
They also chose to add three methods of interrogation: insects placed in a confinement box, sleep deprivation and waterboarding.
Waterboarding, the most controversial technique used on 9/11 suspects, was drawn from other SERE documents the CIA and DOD obtained from JPRA, according to an investigation by the Senate Armed Services Committee and reported by Truthout.
Khalid Shaik Mohammed — who was officially charged this week with planning the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks — was waterboarded 183 times in March 2003, and suspected Al Qaeda operative Abu Zubaydah was waterboarded at least 83 times in August 2002, according to a 2005 Justice Department legal memo.
More than two decades ago, psychologist Bruce Jessen took notes on the PREAL techniques for a SERE survival-training course and wrote that the purpose of such techniques is a way of gaining "total control" over a prisoner and to make the prisoner feel "completely dependent" on his captors so they would "comply with [their] wishes," according to a previous Truthout investigative report.
The purpose of such dependence, according to Jessen, who worked with [CIA psychologist James] Mitchell in designing Bush's torture program, was to coerce the prisoner's cooperation, the better to use the prisoner for "propaganda, special favors, confession, etc."
The overall effect is called "learned helplessness," and it is the key difference between experiencing these methods when in training and when captured by an enemy.
The critical distinction, according to Col. Kleinman, is that "detainees have no idea whether interrogators are using to intimidate them or to kill them" whereas SERE students have full confidence that instructors and medical personnel make sure that they won't be injured during sessions.
So whereas the PREAL manual explicitly states that "Maximum effort will be made to ensure that students do not develop a sense of 'learned helplessness'" during training, one of the main goals of the Bush administration's torture program was to induce learned helplessness.
Col. Kleinman has publicly called for a thorough investigation into how and why the savage techniques made it into the interrogation doctrine that guided US-sanctioned operations.
"This is the guidebook to getting false confessions, a system drawn specifically from the communist interrogation model that was used to generate propaganda rather than intelligence," Kleinman said in an interview. "If your goal is to obtain useful and reliable information this is not the source book you should be using."
A 2006 memo released this week shows that at least one U.S. state department official strongly disagreed with the Bush administration's secret legal interpretation that an international treaty against torture did not apply to CIA interrogations in foreign countries, according The Guardian.
Erectile dysfunction is mostly a vascular disease. Shockwave therapy, as commonly applied by Thai urologists, causes total neovascularization of the vital organ. The result: super erections, even at age 75.
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