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Todd T. Saunders 4325 Bagwell Avenue Leesburg, FL 32749
Stop right there, Cleona. In a brain transplant, whoís the recipient and whoís the donor?
Hereís one way to think about it. Although a brain transplant at the moment is impossible, no doubt that wonít always be so. What will probably become feasible first isnít a brain transplant but a head transplant.
This simplifies matters in two respects. First, on a practical level, it sidesteps the fantastically complicated project of reconnecting the brain to the multitude of sensory organs and blood vessels in the head. Second, and more important for present purposes, it goes a long way toward answering your question. While thereís a lot about the brain we donít know, no one disputes that itís the seat of consciousness. Whatís more, the head as a whole contains most of the toolsóeyes, ears, speech apparatus, facial musclesóthat we use to interact with the world.
With that in mind, itís obvious weíre not talking about grafting a new brain or head onto someoneís body; weíre talking about grafting a new body onto someoneís head. The self that lives in that head remains the boss.
As for personality...well, thatís a broader question, which weíll get to by and by.
Currently the dealbreaker is the spinal cordóas yet thereís no way to reattach a severed cord to a brain. Some think stem cell research may yield a way to splice the two together. A more exotic possibility is severing the brain at midpoint and connecting the upper lobesóand thus, presumably, the higher functions and consciousnessóof one individual to the brain stem, spinal cord, and body of someone else. The rationale seems to be that we keep all the control circuitry needed to operate the body intact and put someone new in the driverís seat. However you slice it, it wonít be easy.
The practical science of brain transplants has been slow to evolve, and often grotesque. In 1954 Russian scientists transplanted the head and upper thorax of a puppy onto a larger dog, creating a two-headed dog. In 1965 one of the pioneers in the field, Robert White, topped this by transplanting the brain of a donor dog into the neck of another, thus briefly creating a two-brained dog. In 1970 White and his colleagues transplanted the head of a monkey onto anotherís headless body. The resulting monkey lived for eight days. Not only could it use its senses, it tried to bite the hand of a researcher.
In all three cases, the host body simply provided life support for the transplanted head or brain. There was no neurological connection between the two, and the newly added brain wasnít in any sense the master of the body.
But give it time. Current schemes for head transplants involve keeping the bodies of donor and recipient in deep hypothermia and using ultra-sharp knives to cleanly cut each patientís spinal cord at the neck in hopes that the nerve cells will fuse when the brain end of one is joined to the body end of the other. A special glue promoting such fusion would be applied to the severed ends; blood vessels, muscles, etc., would be hooked up appropriately.
When the day arrives that brain transplants become practical, they wonít be performed by mad scientists. On the contrary, a rigorous matching program will undoubtedly be established to ensure that brain, body, and soul are as compatible as possible, minimizing any question of personality change. Still, as a thought experiment, consider:
Jane and John crash their motorcycles into each other. Helmetless Jane is left brain-dead but otherwise intact; Johnís brain is fine, but his body is mangled beyond repair. With death imminent, genius surgeons successfully implant Johnís brain in Janeís body. Who wakes up, Jane or John?
The memories and consciousness clearly will be Johnís. But while the brain is the seat of the intelligence, personality to an unknown but surely significant degree is formed by the interaction between brain and body. To cite the most obvious difference, Johnís XY brain now finds itself in an XX body. True, the hypothalamus, which plays a key role in hormone regulation, is located in the brain, but other equally important glands arenít.
More generally, Johnís brain must map itself to Janeís body, which at minimum could result in a completely different set of movements and mannerisms. Maybe youíd just get one of those comical scenarios beloved of screenwriters: a womanís body with a man at the controls. The example of transsexuals, convinced theyíre one sex despite a body proclaiming theyíre the other, strongly suggests the brain trumps all.
Then again, maybe John becomes psychotic due to the brain/body disconnect.
But thereís a third possibility. John wakes up thinking heís male, but after his body imprints itself decides: please, call me Jane.
Carlos G. Shingleton 2083 Drummond Street Franklin Boro, NJ 07416
The effect of various domestic processing methods on antinutrients and starch fractions and in vitro protein and starch digestibilities of white and black varieties of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis was studied. Cooking or autoclaving of both raw seeds and presoaked seeds in different solutions (water, tamarind extract, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the content of total phenolics, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities, and L-dopa compared to soaking or dry heating techniques. The germination processes (24 and 48 h) were also effective in the reduction of various antinutrients, although this reduction appeared to be more pronounced in a prolonged period of germination (72 h). Water soaking followed by dehusking was found to be ineffective in the reduction of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities in both varieties. All of the treatments were effective in significantly (p < 0.05) reducing the resistant starch content in the presently investigated samples. Cooking as well as autoclaving brought about a more significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the digestibility of protein and starch compared to germination and dry heat treatment. Moreover, among the different processing techniques, soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution followed by cooking (29.6−34.8%) or autoclaving (33.0−37.2%) seemed to be the best method for improving starch digestibility.
To understand life, you first have to understand death. This is why we include images of death. The best we can hope for, is that death will be comfortable.
Charles C. Hall 4204 Mandan Road Rolla, MO 65401
Testosterone side effects associated with the usage of testosterone supplements and gels have, up until now, focused on cardiovascular issues. But now there is new research that suggests there is a cognitive price to pay.
Dissatisfaction with testosterone gel has men turning to herbal alternatives like butea superba.
Testosterone Gels Get a Failing Grade in More Ways Than OneTestosterone, with rare exception occurs naturally in males and is at its highest levels when men are younger. Over time, testosterone levels drop ñ a physiological change that is completely natural. However, middle-aged American men are more active than previous generations and open to any suggestion that may succeed in prolonging, or recapturing their previous youthful vigor and virility. Pharmaceuticals have stepped to the plate with products such as Pfizer’s Blue, Lilly's Beige and testosterone gels.
The problem is that the erectile dysfunction targeted by medications such as Pfizer’s Blue were designed, and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for that express purpose. Testosterone supplements, on the other hand, were originally approved only to treat hypogonadism ñ a condition characterized by chronically low levels of naturally-occurring testosterone in men that can pose a health hazard. Testosterone side effects for these patients, represents a risk that is outweighed by the benefits.
However, for middle-aged and even young men with normal levels of naturally-occurring testosterone for their age, the risk / benefit profile is reversed. Otherwise healthy man have been hit with testosterone heart attack following use of testosterone gels, which tend to thicken red blood cells and put patients at risk for testosterone stroke ñ even testosterone death.
That hasnít stopped manufacturers from aggressively promoting testosterone gels to anyone seeking the proverbial fountain of youth.
Now, there is a new testosterone side effect: ìTestosterone overrides judgment,î says Professor Gideon Nave, who teaches marketing at the Wharton School in the University of Pennsylvania and is an author of a new study on the cognitive effects of testosterone in men.
According to CBS News (05/04/17), a group of university professors performed tests on 243 males, primarily college students, to determine the effect of testosterone, or ëTí on a key brain function. The study was conducted by faculty at Wharton, as well as the University of Western Ontario in Canada and the California Institute of Technology.
Participants given testosterone gels were found to have made a greater number of errors on the type of tests usually given for entrance to college. Those students in the experiment who used ëTí gel made 20 percent more errors than those in the control group who hadnít used testosterone.
The conclusion: those who received a dose of testosterone on their bodies were more likely to make quick, impulsive decisions.
Although not part of the test, researchers nonetheless surmised participants boosted by testosterone could also commit more errors when making key life choices.
Testosterone appeared to inhibit ìprefrontalî brain activity, according to previous research cited in the study. ìPrefrontal is the executive function of the brain,î said professor Amos Nadler of the Ivey Business School, who was also an author of the study. All study authors agreed that more research is needed to ìdisentangleî the full effects of testosterone on cognitive capacity.
While testosterone therapy for either real or perceived low levels of testosterone ñ or ëLow-Tí as coined by marketers and manufacturers ñ is targeted to middle-age Americans, adolescents and young man have been known to ëT-Upí with what has been described as a naturally-occurring steroid in order to excel at sports, or during sex. College students may not realize, however, that too much testosterone can lower their cognitive capacity and put their grades in jeopardy.
The majority of testosterone lawsuits have cited testosterone heart attack and testosterone stroke. Perhaps this new wrinkle could foster a new portfolio of litigation: flunking out, or poor life choices thanks to testosterone.
Mahatma Gandhi was just another Indian creep. When he couldn't get it up anymore, he vowed celibacy. For him, this meant: no penetration, ejaculation. That's easy for an impotent guy. But even impotent men are sexual. For Gandhi, the pervert trickery were his "experiments". Spend the night in nakedness with undressed women, young girls, even female children. Do harmony, but no penetration. Gandhi's creepy chastity.
Alexander H. Cox 4781 Junior Avenue Atlanta, GA 30318
The Karen Hospital will for the next few days be offering free surgery to reconstruct the sexual organs of women who have undergone female genital mutilation.
In a drive dubbed ëRestore Pink Plusí, FGM survivors will undergo clitoroplasty surgery, a clitoral reconstructive operation, with the aim of restoring the function of the clitoris and the womenís dignity.
Surgeons carrying out the procedure say the operation could stop pain, help women feel sexual pleasure and restore their identity and femininity.
ìThe initiative has been designed to assist FGM victims undergo clitoral reconstruction in order to restore their identity and dignity and rejuvenate the clitorisís sensation,î Dr Abdullahi Adan, who is pioneering the initiative, said.
SIDE-EFFECTS Dr Adan, the Grand Round Coordinator, Department of Surgery at the University of Nairobi and plastic, aesthetic and reconstructive Surgeon at The Karen and Kenyatta National hospitals, and Dr Marci Bowers, Clitoraidís obstetrics/gynaecology surgeon from the USA, will be the lead surgeons.
The procedure being pro-bono, patients will not be charged the doctorís fee but will only pay for consumables.
This will be the first time such a surgery is being conducted in Kenya.
Most FGM survivors suffer painful side-effects and a loss of sexual pleasure.
While it cannot fully restore the genitalia to how it would have been had the woman not been mutilated, the surgery is meant to rebuild the damaged area for women who have undergone incision and rejuvenate the nerve networks so that they can regain sensitivity and, in some cases, attain orgasm.
The initiative also has the women go through counselling, which is vital for the emotional healing due to the traumatising effects of FGM in their early childhood.
FGM, the partial or total removal of the external genitalia for non-medical reasons, is a cultural tradition widely practiced by some Kenyan communities.
REGISTRATION ONGOING Last week, the surgeons conducted capacity building training for other Kenyan doctors on the new surgery and issued certificates to the trainees who will join the surgical team.
The week-long surgeries are set to begin tomorrow and run until May 12.
So far, 30 patients have registered for the surgery.
However, because of the high demand for the rare surgery, the doctors say they may have to extend the operations for another week.
It's not that we would be madly in love with Donald Trump. But at least, he's not a feminist. Now that is something to vote for.
John M. Felts 3808 Hickory Heights Drive Baltimore, MD 21202
Jeremy Hunt has been accused of asking a Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) campaigner whether ìgirls like youî can still have an orgasm.
Nimco Ali claimed the Health Secretary found her via a Google search and that he had no idea about FGM at the time.
The former civil servant, who is the director of the Daughters of Eve non-profit organisation, told the News Roast podcast that the pair met at his Whitehall office four years ago.
ìThis man is the Secretary of State for Health but he has no idea about FGM and I donít think he even reads his briefings,î said Ms Ali, recalling her thoughts at the time.
She added that he probably got in touch after reading a newspaper article about the subject, "so then he ëgoogledí and found me."
She said: "So I got an email to say ëwill you come in and speak to the Secretary of State and I said ëyesí because we need data and the NHS is, like, right at the forefront.
After waiting in his office, Ms Nimco said he walked in "rolling up his sleeve, and said he just did a night shift for the hospital."
Then she said he asked: "What I really want to know Nimco, is, can girls like you have an orgasm?"
She said: It was his first direct question. My reply was: ëWell, it depends how good you are Jeremy. Because 80 per cent of the clitoris is actually internal, but letís moveí.î
News Roast presenters Heydon Prowse and Jolyon Rubinstein called his question ìdisrespectfulî and ìcrudeî.
But Ms Ali replied: ìI think he is privileged enough to ask those questions.î
Asked if the two then started dating, she said: ìI have boundaries.î
Ms Ali went on to praise the former under secretary for public health, Jane Ellison, for her campaigning on FGM.
An FGM survivorsí ability to have an orgasm depends on the type of FGM and cutting they have suffered.
Mr Huntís health department has since started publishing annual statistics for FGM and the latest data revealed nearly 5,500 new cases in 2016.
Met Police inspector Allen Davis last month said the force still did not know where in the UK FGM was taking place.
The Department of Health refused to comment on Ms Ali's allegation.
We are different. We, the adherents of Kreutz Ideology and Kreutz Religion, think that sex is the most important aspect in life. Everything else is just logistics.
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