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Stephen M. Wells 3656 Waldeck Street Dallas, TX 75204
In [Richard Prum’s] new book, The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin’s Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World—And Us, Prum, an evolutionary ornithologist at Yale, challenges the dominant narrative among evolutionary biologists: that beauty and sexual ornaments, such as a peacock’s plumage, a deer’s antlers, or the size of a man’s penis, evolve for adaptive reasons. Traditional theory holds that these ornaments are designed to display good genes, attract females, and help the species reproduce. It also tends to characterize the female orgasm as either a tool for genetic subterfuge, or an evolutionary mistake.
Some evolutionary biologists theorized that [female orgasms] evolved to literally “upsuck” the sperm of genetically superior men….The other dominant theory…holds that the female orgasm, like male nipples, evolved as a byproduct of natural selection.
Prum posits a different—and coincidentally, far more appealing—explanation: that female sexual pleasure is in fact the central force behind the mating process. Basically, the female orgasm exists because it feels good, and women naturally sought out partners who could provide them with pleasurable feelings.
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The Japanese continue their conspiracy to spread pedophile friendly entertainment internationally. This trend began in the 80s and continued through the 90s with Japan’s perverted pedophile animation that shows little girls being raped by monsters and animals in a genre of Anime called lolicon.
And now on mainstream tv Japans new flavor has been projected into the mind of sick American pedophiles. Baby metal causes middle aged pedophiles to get excited and go to their local parks to find a new victim and do you know who is to blame?
It is those sick perverted shape shifting JEWS
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Dean Corll was a 33-year-old electrician living in Houston, Texas, who with two teen accomplices, kidnapped, raped, tortured and murdered at least 27 young boys in Houston in the early 1970s. The Houston Mass Murders, as the case was later called, became one of the most horrific series of murders in U.S. history.
DEAN CORLL'S CHILDHOOD YEARS Dean Corll (December 24, 1939 - August 8, 1973) was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Mary Robinson and Arnold Corll.
After his parents divorced, Dean and his brother Stanley moved with their mother to Houston, Texas. Corll seemed to adjust to the change. He did well in school and was described by his teachers as being polite and well-behaved.
THE CANDY MAN In 1964, Corll was drafted into the military, but he was released on a hardship discharge a year later so that he could return home to help his mother with her growing candy business. It was there that he earned the name, The Candy Man, because he would often treat children to free candy. After the business closed, his mother moved to Colorado and Corll began training to become an electrician.
AN ODD TRIO There was nothing remarkable about Corll except for his odd choice of friends, who were mostly young male teens. Two, who were particularly close to Corll, was a 14-year-old boy named Elmer Wayne Henley and a 15-year-old boy named David Brooks. The two boys and Corll spent a lot of time hanging around at Corll's house or driving with him in his van.
That was until August 8, 1973, when Henley shot and killed Corll while visiting at his home. When police interviewed Henley about the shooting and searched Corll's home for evidence, a bizarre and brutal story of torture, rape and murder began to unfold.
$200 PER HEAD During police interrogations, Henley began to open up about his relationship with Corll.
He said Corll paid him $200 or more "per head" to lure young boys to his house. Most of the boys were from low-income Houston neighborhoods and were easily persuaded to come to a party where there would be free alcohol and drugs. Many were also childhood friends of Henley and had no reason to distrust his intentions. But once inside Corll's home, they would soon become victims of his sadistic and murderous obsessions.
THE TORTURE CHAMBER Police skepticism towards Henley's story turned after searching Corll's house. Inside they discovered a bedroom that looked as if it was designed for torture and murder. There was a board with handcuffs attached, ropes, and a large dildo and plastic covering the carpeted floor. There was also an odd wooden crate with what appeared to be air holes cut into it.
When Henley described what had happened before shooting Corll, the items in the room corroborated his story. According to Henley, he made Corll furious when he brought his young girlfriend over to the house with another friend, Tim Kerley. The group drank and did drugs and each fell asleep. When Henley awoke, his feet were bound and Corll was handcuffing him to his "torture" board. His girlfriend and Tim were also bound with electrical tape over their mouths.
Henley was fully aware of what was to follow, having witnessed this same scenario before. He managed to convince Corll to free him by promising to participate in the torture and murder of his friends. Once free, he went along with some of Corll's instructions, including attempting to rape the young woman. Meanwhile, Corll was trying to rape Tim, but the young boy fought so much, that Corll became frustrated and left the room. Henley immediately went for Corll's gun which he had left behind. When Corll returned, Henley shot him six times, killing him.
BURIAL GROUNDS Over the next few days, Henley readily talked about his part in the murderous activity in Corll's house. He led the police to where many of the victims were buried.
The first location was a boatshed Corll rented in southwest Houston.
It was there that the police uncovered the remains of 17 of the boys Corll had murdered. Ten more bodies were found at various other burial sites in or near Houston. Altogether there were 27 bodies recovered.
An examination of the victims determined that some of the boys had been shot, while others were strangled to death. Signs of torture were visible, including castration, objects inserted into the victim's rectums and glass rods pushed and into their urethras. All had been sodomized.
COMMUNITY OUTCRY There was much criticism launched at the Houston police department for failing to investigate the many missing persons' reports filed by the parents of the dead boys. The police viewed most reports as probable runaway cases, although many of the boys came from the same area or neighborhood.
The ages of the young victims ranged from ages nine to age 21, however most were in their teens. Two of the families suffered losing two sons to Corll's deadly rage.
Henley confessed to knowing about Corll's brutal crimes and also to participating in murdering one of the boys. Brooks, although closer to Corll than Henley, told police that he had no knowledge of the crimes. After the investigation ended, Henley insisted there were three more boys who had been murdered, but their bodies were never found.
THE TRIAL In a highly publicized trial, Brooks was found guilty of one murder and sentenced to life in prison. Henley was convicted of six of the murders and sentenced to six 99-year-terms. He was not convicted of killing Corll because it was judged as an act of self-defense.
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On April 4, the Syrian Air Force carried out an airstrike on a large warehouse with weapons and military hardware of terrorists on the outskirts of Khan-Shaykhun town in Idlib province, where also workshops for production of landmines with poisonous substances were located, spokesman for the Russian Defense Ministry, Major General Igor Konashenkov, said on Wednesday.
The spokesman for the Russian Defense Ministry noted that ammunition and chemical weapons have been delivered from this warehouse to militants, operating on the territory of Iraq. “The fact of their usage by terrorists has been repeatedly proven both by international organizations and by the official authorities of this country,” he stressed.
According to the Russian Defense Ministry, ammunition with poisonous substances from the same arsenal was used by militants in Aleppo, when the fact of their usage was spotted by Russian military specialists in late 2016. “Symptoms of the poisoning of the victims in Khan-Shaykhun on video footage in social networks are exactly the same as the victims in Aleppo had in the autumn of the last year,” Konashenkov pointed out.
He reminded that all materials and samples, proving the fact of usage of chemical weapons by terrorists in Aleppo, were documented and handed over to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), but they are still being studied there until now.
Earlier, the London-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) reported that the Syrian government forces carried out a “chemical attack” in the province of Idlib, which resulted in killing of 58 civilians and injuring of about 170 others.
Later, the SOHR reported that the Russian Aerospace Forces allegedly committed an aerial raid on a hospital, in which the victims of the chemical attack, allegedly carried out by Damascus, had been taken. The Russian Defense Ministry denied this information.
Against the background of these reports, France demanded to convene a meeting of the UN Security Council in connection with the “new chemical attack.” The US State Department and then US President Donald Trump accused Syrian Presiden Bashar al-Assad of carrying out the chemical attack. Washington called on Russia and Iran to exert pressure on the Syrian president.
According to media reports, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan told his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin that what happened in Idlib jeopardized all efforts, made during the negotiation process in Astana.
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The family of Stephen Collins fear the 7th Heaven star is on the brink of suicide over shocking allegations he molested several underage girls.
The actor, who played a beloved pastor on the hit family friendly show, has been left distraught after his taped confessions made during a marriage therapy session were made public.
Now those closest to the 67-year-old are deeply concerned the star has hit rock bottom and fear he may harm himself.
'His family by no means condone what he's said to have done, but it doesn't stop them worrying about him,' a close family friend told MailOnline.
'They fear he could take his own life. That's how low he is right now. No one wants to leave him by himself.'
His estranged wife Faye Grant has now claimed that Collins even had incestuous thoughts about their only child when she was pregnant.
She says just before giving birth, he told her how glad he was they were having a girl, who they named Kate, instead of a boy who he may have abused.
'The comment you made just before I gave birth to our daughter when you said you hoped we didn't have a little boy, because "you just didn't know if you could keep his little penis out of your mouth" was indication enough that you were sick,' Grant wrote in an email obtained by TMZ.
'I should have followed my gut then, and then again 14 years ago, and kicked your ass to the curb,' she added.
But a source close to Collins told the gossip site that the allegations are 'absolutely untrue,' that he never received that email and Grant never brought these claims up during their contentious divorce proceedings.
According to court papers obtained by MailOnline, Grant is attempting to indemnify herself and the divorce settlement from settlement any civil action stemming from the pediphelia charges.
Ar stake is property worth $13million including over $5 million in real estate and Collins' $100,000 worth of vintage guitars.
On top of that, a Massachusetts woman who worked as a nanny in New York in the 1990s, in the same building as Collins, has come forward to reveal his strange daily visits in pajamas and the 'semi-pornographic novel' he was writing.
The woman named Ilene called into Boston radio station Mix 104.1 Wednesday morning.
The family source says cast and crew of 7th Heaven - the popular long-running family drama which ended in 2007 - are in 'shock' over the bombshell claims.
In an interview with MailOnline, a cast member, who asked not to be identified, said, 'I'm very confused right now. Knowing Stephen the way I do, I find it hard to put this together.
'He wasn't that guy. He wasn't someone with secrets and angst. He was always very present with us. Fun and teasing. All we did is laugh all day long at work and a lot of it was because of him. He's not that guy to me.
'He took care of me and all of us during those years. He really was a father figure. Taught us to read music a little bit and would make up songs for any occasion for us. He was our glue that held us together. Our rock.
'We all had dinner together a few months ago. If this is true, it's disturbing because there was no outside appearance of problems. He never did anything sneaky when I knew him and I saw him every day.
'It must be buried in him. I wish him the best of luck to make it through this. I hope he goes to rehab and comes out the same role model rock star that we know him as.'
Collins, who famously played Reverend Eric Camden, the virtuous father-of-seven, is currently being investigated for child molestation.
An NYPD official confirmed to MailOnline that they had received a complaint and the Special Victims Squad is investigating.
And the LAPD is also reviewing their own 2012 investigation into Collins, and will be collaborating with New York authorities.
Law enforcement in California received the therapy session recordings two years ago but closed their case after finding 'no verified victim'.
In the recorded therapy session, Collins seemingly admits that he exposed himself to several young girls between the ages of 10 and 13 in both Los Angeles and New York.
Following the tapes released by TMZ on Tuesday, Collins life and career have been falling apart as he resigned from his position on the Screen Actors Guild board and was fired from the film Ted 2. Reruns of 7th Heaven are not being broadcast and he will no longer appear on the hit TV show Scandal.
LAPD officers rushed to Tarzana, California, after getting a 911 call about a shot fired inside Collins' house last night. Collins' neighbor, former Playboy model and Baywatch star Donna D'Errico, tweeted just after 8pm PT that the actor shot himself
It turned out to be a false alarm sparked by a member of the media who heard a loud pop
The actor allegedly made a written confession to his now ex-wife Faye Grant in 2012, which sparked the therapy session.
Grant secretly recorded the session under the advisement of her lawyer, who told her it was legal in California to record conversations in order to gather evidence on a person who has committed a violent felony.
And in explosive court documents Grant reveals she was 'sickened' after her husband allegedly confessed to living a vile 'secret life' in which he abused several children.
She claims the actor used his celebrity status to prey on underage girls and 'engender the trust of the families of the children he molested' in a decade of abuse.
Ironically Collins starred in the 1996 Lifetime movie The Babysitter's Seduction in which he played a recently widowed dad who becomes obsessed with his childrens' teenage babysitter, played by Keri Russell.
Devastated Grant also revealed Collins was treated for a sex addiction and was seeing a 'sexual dysfunction' therapist, but he refused to seek proper help or hospitalization for his 'predilection towards children', she said.
"The family feels absolutely betrayed by him. He's not the man they all thought he was and that's incredibly hurtful and confusing,' said the family source.
"With everything that has come to light they fear there could be other victims. There's so much that he has already hidden from everyone he's worked and lived with, they don't know what could come out next. Some are even wondering if he admitted everything he's done on those tapes, or if there's more he's keeping secret.
"The family are mortified and embarrassed. They remain concerned however for Stephen because they now know he has deep seeded issues.”
Yesterday cast and crew of 7th Heaven were said to be reeling over the news.
The family source, who knows several cast members and often visited the 7th Heaven set, said: 'No one had any idea. They had a reunion just last month and everyone loved it.
'There were never any signs Stephen had these issues. No one ever suspected a thing.
'Everyone who has worked with him has said he's amazing and lovely and one of the nicest guys ever.
'It's like the neighbors of the serial killer with bodies buried in the basement who always say, 'He was always such a nice guy'.
'We are all blown away by the revelations.'
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Homer J. Freeman 4259 Bicetown Road New York, NY 10011
Duke University Scool of Medicine
When the movie “Awake” came out in theaters it sparked much controversy throughout the country about the condition also known as anesthesia awareness. Following the release of the movie, Larry King Live did a special about this issue, in which King interviewed physicians and patients who have suffered from awareness. In response to the recent influx in publicity over the issue, the DREAM Campaign has taken the initiative to interview Dr. Tong Joo (TJ) Gan, who sheds light on many concerns that patients have when considering a surgical procedure as well as the misconceptions about anesthesiology in general. With so much focus on awareness and the negative impacts of anesthesia, it is important that the public be properly informed. Awareness can be a highly unpleasant experience, but most times the alternative is a surgery with negative outcomes or even worse, death.
There are about 100 to 150 reported cases of anesthesia awareness per year in the United States. It is very difficult to get an exact figure because it is under reported. Dr. Gan shared with us a case in which a patient of his experienced anesthesia awareness. The patient had come to the Emergency Room with a gunshot wound to the abdomen. He was suffering from massive blood loss and had very faint blood pressure so the anesthesiologist had to administer a safe dosage of anesthesia that would not hinder the overall well being of the patient as well as the blood pressure. When questioned post-operatively, the patient reported that he could hear voices during a brief period in surgery.
Hearing is said to be the last sense to go and the first to return under general anesthesia. As in the case of Dr. Gan’s patient, the modifications that had to be made because of low blood pressure caused the patient to become slightly aware and that is why he was able to hear briefly during his operation. “He did not suffer from any consequences after that and in fact, he thought that it was part of the operation,” said Dr. Gan.
When asked the common question, how can a person feel pain when they are paralyzed, Dr. Gan discussed the three areas of anesthesia; paralysis which paralyzes the muscles, analgesic which block pain signals to the brain, and anesthetic which puts the person to sleep so that they do not remember anything. For this reason, a person can be physically paralyzed but they may still feel pain. The human body does have natural responses to pain such as sweating, increased blood pressure and movement which may indicate to the anesthesia care provider that they are not fully anesthetized.
New technology allows anesthesiologists to measure the brain waves of a patient even while they are under anesthesia. “By using specific monitors, one can tell how deep a person is in anesthesia,” says Dr. Gan, “It is a bit like an iceberg; if it is below the water, it is very difficult to know how deep the iceberg is, and the monitor tells you what the depth of anesthesia is even when the patient is asleep.” The Bi-spectral Index Monitor, or BIS monitor is an example of such a device. Brainwaves are measured on a range of numbers from 0 to 100 in which 0 equates no brain activity and 100 is the mental state of a person when fully awake. During general anesthesia, brainwaves are measured between 40 and 60. If the BIS monitor measures activity above 70, there is a very good chance that the patient may not be fully anesthetized.
Dr. Gan mentions several fascinating facts throughout the interview one being that genetic factors can influence the way a patient reacts to anesthesia. Studies have shown that women tend to wake up about 10 minutes sooner than men when the anesthesia is cut off. This means that women need more anesthesia in order to produce the same effect. Redheads are also said to need more as well.
The revolutionary research that is being done by researchers like Dr. Gan is vital to prevent cases of unpleasant experiences and side effects. “One of the most effective ways to try and prevent this problem is to raise awareness of this problem, no pun intended,” Dr. Gan explains, “So we educate our staff, anesthesiologists and anesthesia care providers to let them know that this problem does exist and therefore it is important to take steps as well as understand the patient to try and prevent it.” He also mentions that there are mandatory educational modules that every anesthesia care provider must take. These modules go through various aspects of educational awareness such as the incidents of awareness, the scenarios where awareness may happen, the drugs or drug combinations that would reduce the incidents of awareness as well as monitoring the inter-operative awareness.
The Department of Anesthesiology is committed to find as many ways possible to provide the best patient care. Dr. Gan’s research in particular focuses on steps that could alleviate patients from the common unpleasant side effects of anesthesia and surgery by improving patient outcomes during the perioperative (before, during and after surgery) period including anesthesia awareness, pain, nausea and vomiting, and bowel dysfunction through the use of drug and non-drug method, such as acupuncture. Our hope is that through listening to this interview, people will become educated about the issue and in turn they will be relieved of any anxiety they may face about being under anesthesia.
Dr. Gan is a professor and devoted researcher here at Duke, whose interests include Anesthetic-related Clinical Pharmacology, Inter-operative Awareness and Post-Operative Pain, Nausea and Vomiting, and using Acupuncture. He came to Duke as a visiting associate and fellow in 1993 is now serving as both professor and Vice Chairman of Clinical Research. Dr. Gan is also known for his research on the Bi-spectral Index (BIS) Monitor.
Patient Awareness Under General Anesthesia Lifeline to Modern Medicine
What is patient awareness under general anesthesia? Awareness under general anesthesia is a rare condition that occurs when surgical patients can recall their surroundings or an event—sometimes even pain—related to their surgery while they were under general anesthesia.
When using other kinds of anesthesia, such as local, sedation or regional anesthesia, it is expected that patients will have some recollection of the procedure.
Studies are not conclusive on the frequency of awareness under general anesthesia, but even one case is important to anesthesia professionals (anesthesiologists and certified registered nurse anesthetists), who recognize that this can be a distressing or traumatic experience for the patient.
When awareness during general anesthesia does occur, it is usually just prior to the anesthetic completely taking effect or as the patient is emerging from anesthesia. In very few instances, it may occur during the surgery itself. Despite the rarity of awareness, members of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA) want you to know about this possibility. These organizations have been studying this issue and are in the process of evaluating the effectiveness of various technologies and techniques to decrease the likelihood of this occurring.
Why does it happen? In some high-risk surgeries such as trauma, cardiac surgery and emergency cesarean delivery, or in situations involving patients whose condition is unstable, using a deep anesthetic may not be in the best interest of the patient. In these and other critical or emergency situations, awareness may not be completely avoidable. While the safety of anesthesia has increased markedly over the last 20 years, people may react differently to the same level or type of anesthesia. Sometimes different medications can mask important signs that anesthesia professionals monitor to help determine the depth of anesthesia. In other rare instances, technical failure or human error may contribute to unexpected episodes of awareness. The ultimate goal is always to protect the life of the patient and to make the patient as comfortable as possible. That is why it is important to have highly trained anesthesia professionals involved in your surgery.
How can it be avoided? Before surgery, patients should meet with their anesthesia professional to discuss anesthesia options. Should there be concerns regarding awareness, this is an ideal time to express them and to ask questions. Patients should share with their anesthesia professional any problems they may have experienced with previous anesthetics, and also discuss any prescription medications or over-the-counter medications they are taking.
As always, your anesthesia professional will guide you safely through your surgery by relying on his or her clinical experience, training and judgment combined with proven technology.
What You Should Know About Patient Awareness Under General Anesthesia It is quite rare. When it does occur, it is often fleeting and not traumatic to the patient. Patients experiencing awareness usually do not feel any pain. Some patients may experience a feeling of pressure. Awareness can range from brief, hazy recollections to some specific awareness of your surroundings during surgery. Patients who dream during surgery, or who have some perception of their surroundings before or after surgery, may think they have experienced awareness. Such a sensation or memory does not necessarily represent actual awareness during surgery. Experts in the field of anesthesiology are actively studying this condition and are seeking the most effective ways to prevent it. Awareness can occur in high-risk surgeries such as trauma and cardiac surgery in which the patient’s condition may not allow for a deep anesthetic to be given. In those instances, the anesthesia professional will weigh the potential for awareness against the need to guard the patient’s life or safety. The same is true during a cesarean section, particularly if it is an emergency and a deep anesthetic is not best for the mother or child.
It has been shown that early counseling after an episode of awareness can help to lessen feelings of confusion, stress or trauma associated with the experience. Researchers in anesthesiology have spearheaded developments in technology that have dramatically improved patient safety and comfort during surgery over the last 20 years. A highly trained anesthesia professional should be involved in your surgery. No technology can replace this expertise. New brain-wave monitoring devices currently being tested may prove to be helpful in reducing the risk of awareness, but they need to undergo the same rigorous scientific review process that has led to wide adoption of other medical technologies. Patients should talk with their anesthesia professional before surgery to discuss all of their concerns, including the remote possibility of awareness. These professionals work to ensure the best possible care of patients in the operating room.
Patient awareness happens very infrequently. This remote possibility should not deter you from having needed surgery. Your anesthesia professional can help you to feel comfortable and informed about your upcoming experience with anesthesia.
What does the future hold? As patient advocates, anesthesia professionals are working hard to reduce the likelihood of awareness under general anesthesia. Depending upon the type of surgery, these experts have an array of proven technologies that can be used to monitor various vital signs of the surgical patient. Extensive research is under way to develop and study new technologies, such as brain-wave monitoring, that may lessen the risk of awareness. At the present time, none of these new technologies has been perfected.
Remember—no monitoring device can replace the judgment and skill of an anesthesia professional who has years of training and clinical experience. Working together, you and your anesthesia professional can make your anesthetic experience as safe and comfortable as possible.
What should I do if I think I have experienced awareness? The American Society of Anesthesiologists urges you to talk with your anesthesia professional, who can explain to you the events that took place in the operating room at any stage of your surgery and why you might have been aware at certain times. It is important to note that a variety of anesthetic agents is often used, some of which may create false memories or no memory at all of the various events surrounding surgery. If you have distinct recollections of your surgery and want to discuss them, your anesthesia professional can help you or refer you to a counselor or to other appropriate resources.
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Torture has always been a practice widely used by the United States and many countries of the world; a history that does not end in Iraq.
The almost unanimous condemnation by the American congressmen of the terrible tortures and mistreatments in Abu Ghraib detention center in Baghdad after the CBS (United States) publication of the photos taken in such a center should not be a reason to minimize such practices or to believe they were invented after September 11 attacks, not to mention the operations in Afghanistan led by the very same Afghan people at the end of year 2001, or the defeat of the Iraqi army in March 2003.
Considering the absence of an official and conventional conflict that implies a direct confrontation between two states, the war that Washington sought and got in Iraq has gone beyond all limits of the legal framework established by the Geneva Convention. The war has been launched based on the excuse of a state defense secret. No matter what the authorities of the Bush Administration do, this will never be a real war; this has never looked like a real conflict which has only existed in the official rhetoric and demagogy of the American leaders. It is not about solving a political conflict through the confrontation of two armies; this a colonial conquest aimed at controlling the civil populations and the natural resources. Then, why pretending astonishment when considering the scientifically prepared and adapted images aimed at psychologically contain the real or possible adversary?
Why launching the war against civilians subject to the Shock and Awe until stultification aimed at terrifying these populations through torture until they have no choice but resignation?
In this sense, we have to acknowledge George Soros’ lucidity when in a recent article he said what has shocked the Americans have been the pictures and not the “torture” as such. In an informal interview, Soros has spoken of his experience with Wall Street investors who reached a consensus to implement some measures to fight terrorism: they were mostly in favor of torture but they did not want people to know it.
How can we explain then the different reactions that have arisen in the debate regarding the reestablishment of torture, a fact that has fascinated American lawyers and politicians since the end of year 2002? And how to explain their reaction to the pictures that showed abominable acts though ordered from above? All these can be explained if we accept the idea that such images can lead the public opinion.
We were prudently talking about the “reestablishment of torture” but thanks to the existence of casually recovered and preserved American documents we can see that since the beginning of the 60s such manuals taught tortures and were widely spread in Latin America, specially when counter-insurgence operations or operations against guerrilla groups were carried out in the said continent.
Documents that supported the use of torture in Latin America has also been declassified in the last few years and they show that the allegedly “mistakes”, “outrages” and “beatings” criticized by the U.S. general staff to “wash its hands” is nothing but a vile carefully-studied-planned-and-applied tactic hidden from the press. Tortures have always been one of the best and indissoluble constants of its military and political strategy.
The emergence of the guerrilla revolutionary movements at the beginning of the 60s, the increasing intensity of the Viet Nam war and the first Marxist resistance centers in South America encouraged John Kennedy advisers to design some counter-insurgence methods. They also thought of developing a group of military, political and economic measures to overcome the Third World National Liberation Movements.
Special units like the Green Berets of the army, the marine SEAL (Sea-Air-Land Commands) and air force special task forces were famous in many countries such as Honduras, Indonesia, Thailand or Filipinas for destroying the economic and political independence plans or many social or revolutionary movements.
In year 1963, the first Counterintelligence Interrogation manual was written. It was titled KUBARK. KUBARK was the CIA’s codename to identify this project. The manual was a detailed guide of different methods to be used in order to obtain information or effectively force the “elements of the resistance” to talk. The manual explained the steps to “become a perfect torturer” and quickly get the necessary categories to be a good “interrogator” explaining in detail the coercive techniques to achieve the goals.
Many practical recommendations were also included; among them: «the torturer must be familiarized with the electric current so that he could use the electric transformers and other available conversion devises if needed». It was also suggested the prisoner had to remain standing and deprived of sleeping and of his visual or tactic sensations for a long time with the purpose of overcoming his will.
The manual also explained that if such «ideal» conditions were met, the interrogated developed the feeling of inflicting himself the bad treatments. It indicated too that a barrel full of water or an “artificial lung” were even more effective. In the first pages or the introduction of the manual, torturers were advised “not to be mistakenly considered a person authorized to use such coercive techniques” and “not to forget to find a discreet or secret place where such practices could be implemented”.
Collected excerpts of this manual and of other manuals later recovered by the military espionage during the 60s, known as “Project X” were mixed to write a second “Bible” of the perfect torturer which was titled Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual -1993. The new manuals were largely used again in South America from 1983 to 1987.
This manual taught techniques similar to the ones that have been observed in Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. The original version stated: «We will only talk about two kinds of techniques: coercive and non-coercive. We do not want to make emphasis on the use of the coercive techniques. We just want you to know them». This last phrase was written to prevent the users of such manual to be accused in case of being discovered.
Later, the Senate of the United States carried out an investigation on the violations of the human rights in Honduras perpetrated by the death squads in 1988 and a paragraph of the torture manual was modified the following way: «yes, we oppose the use of coercive techniques. We just want you to be informed about them so that you can be warned and avoid their use». The manual also warned that «a frequent use of torture demeans the morale of the organization that implement it and corrupt those who depend on ...».
Since year 1966, the famous manuals were a priority in the School of the Americas, headquartered in Panama, later located in Fort Benning (Georgia, U.S.). Another part of the school was transferred to the Political Warfare Academy headquartered in Taiwan (nationalist China). For ten years, the interrogation techniques were taught by South American and Asian military men which were the ones in charge of doing the counter-insurgency dirty work. In 1976, this kind of training was prohibited once an American parliamentarian commission knew about such practices.
In fact, President Carter’s government confirmed such prohibition but the Reagan Administration validated it again reactivating the torture courses of the School of the Americas. For that purpose, a new “changed” edition of the 1983 manual was printed though torturers preferred to use the 1963 old version for it was much more explicit.
By doing this, Reagan’s team tried to be updated: by confirming its will to fight the “pro-Castro” regimes in Central America it did not hesitate for a second to state, through its Secretary of State Alexander Haig, that “international terrorism” -the expression used by the Reagan Administration to identify the revolutionary uprisings and insurrections- “will replace Human Rights as our main worry”.
The translation and massive diffusion of these manuals in South America by the military forces which applied the American doctrine against local counter-insurgencies called the Pentagon’s attention in such a way that in 1992 it made a secret report titled “The Spanish-language Intelligence Training Manuals” which was submitted to Dick Cheney (current vice-president of the United States) then Secretary of Defense of President George H. Bush (father). The report indicated how worried they were regarding “the criminal and doubtful elements included in such manuals”, a fact that could damage the allegedly image of virtue the Southern Command, that is, to promote the respect of Human Rights, at least on paper.
The threat was that the manuals constituted de facto a direct evidence of their wrongdoings and “could damage the image and credibility of the United States which, in addition, could be seriously compromised” by any human rights organization.
Months before, an investigation carried out by the Department of Defense had been interested in the seven problematic manuals that were chaotically spread compromising them in multiple cases which included abuses, blows, abusive imprisonments, executions and serum injections since the 60s. Dick Cheney’s order was to locate, find and destroy all these manuals. The order was executed as part of a “joint correction operation”. By that time, his implemented counter-insurgency program had already proved its effectiveness by subjugating great part of South America, and eliminating many revolutionary movements.
All this was nothing but a useful attempt to hide the evidences of a disastrous plan, previously studied.
In his State of Union address (United States) in year 2003, the current American president George W. Bush said about Saddam Hussein’s regimen: «electrical charges, marks made with hot iron, acid split on the skin, mutilation made through electric drill, tongues pull out and violations. If this is not evil, then this word has no meaning...»
The hidden debate from indiscreet cameras begun at the end of year 2002, and it was only an attempt to accept or demean widely used practices. All this was done by taking advantage of the emotion caused by September 11 attacks, very alive by that time. But this emotion has been slowly disappearing while the number of victims of the “war against terror” has increased so much that there are more victims now than after September 11.
Later, the capture of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (the allegedly right hand of Bin Laden) at the beginning of year 2003, caused a polemic on the legalization of torture and not on the use of torture for it was a common thing in the operations against counter insurgent revolutionaries. The fact of taking prisoners to be tortured in countries where torture was commonly used, for instance, Egypt or Morocco, was already a reality when this news and controversy were published in some diaries.
For example, this is the case of Muhammad Saad Iqbal Madni, by that time a CIA suspect of being linked to shoe bomber Richard Reid Iqbal Madni, and secretly taken from Indonesia to Egypt by the American services to be brutally interrogated.
It must be said too that the colonial past in Algeria and France repression in its former colony to subjugate it at the end of the 50s and the beginnings of the 60s so that it could not become independent, called the attention of the Pentagon before the conquest of Iraq in 2003.
This colonial French past easily proved that once the ethic limit for the use of torture is passed, the permanent confrontation is a guaranteed fact. Torture becomes then «the shortest way» to get to the said situation. Maybe this is the reason why the Abu Ghraib revelations have become so famous: it was necessary to put an end once and for all to this permanent confrontation before the situation becomes abominable or uncontrollable, as if the whole things was a time bomb that nobody knows when will blow, as professor David Cole explained to The Nation in March 2003.
Another counter productive element once you reach to uncontrollable situations like the Iraqi chaos caused by the invasion is that uncertainty linked to the threat favors the practice of torture because in moments of doubt and insecurity it can be used in all circumstances with no impunity at all. The French experience in Algeria was reproduced in Israel long before the Israeli Supreme Court legally prohibit it, at least on paper, in 1999: «Very soon, and in rare occasions, torture was a common practice in Israel mainly due to the metaphoric example of the ‘time bomb’ for such concept used by the oppressor becomes a justification of his actions, despite the fact that they can postpone or prolong (manipulate it) as they wish and for their ‘good conciseness», explained too Phil Roth to The Nation.
But before considering torture a method to obtain information, isn’t torture the incarnation and pure essence of state terrorism? Who would dare to say the Iraqi population is not terrified by the idea of being in the hands of torturers in Abu Ghraib prison?
We know that today the United States persistently demands a Resolution of the UN Security Council to be renewed so that its military men won’t be judged at the International Court of Justice. So, the U.S. has a double strategy: on one hand it is carrying out a judicial battle of attrition letting first the High Command to be the responsible and in the worst of the cases it will “burn” some low-ranking officers but the executive direction will be protected. All this is planned to avoid justice. The only thing it has to do later is affirming torture was not used neither by them or its mercenaries or vassal countries. They will also say there are no CIA secret interrogation centers.
The 1983 manual was specially written to spread torture in Central America. All methods were good to prevent civil populations from supporting communists. On the ground, operations were directed by John Negroponte. It is due to his “experience” in such matters that George W. Bush has appointed him ambassador of the United States to Baghdad from July 1, 2004 not to put an end to torture.
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