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116 things that cause cancer

Include smoking, sunbeds, arsenic, asbestos as well as hepatitis B and C, HIV, Epstein-Barr virus, working as painter

BACON, burgers and sausages were this week deemed to be as big a cancer threat as cigarettes, according to global health chiefs.

The warning saw processed meat added to the list of items classified as carcingogenic to humans by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

It means dietary favourites, including salami, chorizo and smoked ham, rank alongside arsenic and asbestos, when it comes to the potential cancer risk.

Officials said just 50g of processed meat a day – less than one sausage – increases the risk of bowel cancer by almost a fifth.

The report also classified red meat as ‘probably carcinogenic’ – one rank below – but added that it had some nutritional benefits.

Experts are now urging the public to avoid processed meat where possible and to have a bean salad for lunch rather than a BLT.

Processed meat has been preserved, for example by smoking, and includes ham and pate, as well as burgers and mince if they have been preserved using salt or chemical additives.

Experts think the substances added during processing cause cancer. These include preservatives such as nitrates and nitrites – as well as substantial amounts of salt.

Fresh red meat is also strongly linked to cancer and the WHO categorised it one level below processed meat, as ‘probably carcinogenic’.

But it also provides many nutritional benefits and is high in protein, iron and vitamin B12, which prevent tiredness and infections.

Twenty-two experts at the WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), from 10 countries, took the decision after reviewing more than 800 studies that investigated the links between red meat and processed meat and various different types of cancer.

Processed meat was classified as carcinogenic, based on sufficient evidence in humans that consumption causes specifically colorectal or bowel cancer, they concluded.

The classification of red meat as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans’ was observed mainly in relation to colorectal cancer, but links were also seen for pancreatic and prostate cancer.

The experts concluded that each 50 gram portion of processed meat eaten daily increases the risk of colorectal cancer by 18 per cent.

“For an individual, the risk of developing colorectal cancer because of their consumption of processed meat remains small, but this risk increases with the amount of meat consumed,” said Dr. Kurt Straif, head of the IARC Monographs Programme.

“In view of the large number of people who consume processed meat, the global impact on cancer incidence is of public health importance.”

Dr. Christopher Wild, director of IARC added: “These findings further support current public health recommendations to limit intake of meat. At the same time, red meat has nutritional value.

“Therefore, these results are important in enabling governments and international regulatory agencies to conduct risk assessments, in order to balance the risks and benefits of eating red meat and processed meat and to provide the best possible dietary recommendations.”

But, in light of the news, which has attracted widespread reaction, the IARC has revealed its list of 116 things that can cause cancer. The list features the known obvious culprits, tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, alcohol, asbestos and arsenic, to name a few.

But, there are also a number of everyday activities and items that feature that are almost impossible to avoid, including the air we breathe.

And the list also features various health conditions, such as hepatitis B and C as well as HIV.

Here, DailyMailUK online reveals all those things, which are classified alongside processed meat in the IARC’s group one, carcinogenic to humans category – those that definitely cause cancer:

1. Tobacco smoking 2. Sunlamps and sunbeds 3. Aluminium production 4. Arsenic in drinking water 5. Auramine production 6. Boot and shoe manufacture and repair 7. Chimney sweeping 8. Coal gasification 9. Coal tar distillation 10. Coke (fuel) production 11. Furniture and cabinet making 12. Haematite mining (underground) with exposure to radon 13. Secondhand smoke 14. Iron and steel founding 15. Isopropanol manufacture (strong-acid process) 16. Magenta dye manufacturing 17. Occupational exposure as a painter

18. Paving and roofing with coal-tar pitch 19. Rubber industry 20. Occupational exposure of strong inorganic acid mists containing sulphuric acid 21. Naturally occurring mixtures of aflatoxins (produced by funghi) 22. Alcoholic beverages 23. Areca nut – often chewed with betel leaf 24. Betel quid without tobacco 25. Betel quid with tobacco 26. Coal tar pitches 27. Coal tars

28. Indoor emissions from household combustion of coal 29. Diesel exhaust 30. Mineral oils, untreated and mildly treated 31. Phenacetin, a pain and fever reducing drug 32. Plants containing aristolochic acid (used in Chinese herbal medicine) 33. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) – widely used in electrical equipment in the past, banned in many countries in the 1970s 34. Chinese-style salted fish 35. Shale oils 36. Soots 37. Smokeless tobacco products 38. Wood dust 39. Processed meat 40. Acetaldehyde 41. 4-Aminobiphenyl 42. Aristolochic acids and plants containing them 43. Asbestos 44. Arsenic and arsenic compounds

45. Azathioprine 46. Benzene 47. Benzidine 48. Benzo[a]pyrene 49. Beryllium and beryllium compounds 50. Chlornapazine (N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine) 51. Bis(chloromethyl)ether 52. Chloromethyl methyl ether 53. 1,3-Butadiene 54. 1,4-Butanediol dimethanesulfonate (Busulphan, Myleran) 55. Cadmium and cadmium compounds 56. Chlorambucil 57. Methyl-CCNU (1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea; Semustine) 58. Chromium(VI) compounds

59. Ciclosporin 60. Contraceptives, hormonal, combined forms (those containing both oestrogen and a progestogen) 61. Contraceptives, oral, sequential forms of hormonal contraception (a period of oestrogen-only followed by a period of both oestrogen and a progestogen) 62. Cyclophosphamide 63. Diethylstilboestrol 64. Dyes metabolized to benzidine 65. Epstein-Barr virus 66. Oestrogens, nonsteroidal 67. Oestrogens, steroidal 68. Oestrogen therapy, postmenopausal 69. Ethanol in alcoholic beverages 70. Erionite 71. Ethylene oxide 72. Etoposide alone and in combination with cisplatin and bleomycin 73. Formaldehyde

74. Gallium arsenide 75. Helicobacter pylori (infection with) 76. Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection with) 77. Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection with) 78. Herbal remedies containing plant species of the genus Aristolochia 79. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (infection with) 80. Human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 66. 81. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I. 82. Melphalan 83. Methoxsalen (8-Methoxypsoralen) plus ultraviolet A-radiation 84. 4,4’-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA) 85. MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents

86. Mustard gas (sulphur mustard) 87. 2-Naphthylamine 88. Neutron radiation 89. Nickel compounds 90. 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) 91. N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) 92. Opisthorchis viverrini (infection with) 93. Outdoor air pollution 94. Particulate matter in outdoor air pollution 95. Phosphorus-32, as phosphate 96. Plutonium-239 and its decay products (may contain plutonium-240 and other isotopes), as aerosols 97. Radioiodines, short-lived isotopes, including iodine-131, from atomic reactor accidents and nuclear weapons detonation (exposure during childhood) 98. Radionuclides, a-particle-emitting, internally deposited

99. Radionuclides, ß-particle-emitting, internally deposited 100. Radium-224 and its decay products 101. Radium-226 and its decay products 102. Radium-228 and its decay products 103. Radon-222 and its decay products 104. Schistosoma haematobium (infection with) 105. Silica, crystalline (inhaled in the form of quartz or cristobalite from occupational sources) 106. Solar radiation 107. Talc containing asbestiform fibres 108. Tamoxifen 109. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin 110. Thiotepa (1,1’,1’-phosphinothioylidynetrisaziridine) 111. Thorium-232 and its decay products, administered intravenously as a colloidal dispersion of thorium-232 dioxide 112. Treosulfan 113. Ortho-toluidine 114. Vinyl chloride 115. Ultraviolet radiation and 116. X-radiation and gamma radiation.

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It's not that all cultures are of the same quality. Some cultures are better than others. They have more value. Other cultures are pretty miserable, and some cultures are outright shitty, and should be eradicated. European culture, for example, is deplorable. The Arab and Chinese cultures are much better.

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Healing wounds, others with local spice

Besides its popular use in treating diabetes, hypertension, epilepsy and convulsion, a local spice, Tetrapleura tetraptera could be effective used in healing wounds. CHUKWUMA MUANYA and TAYO OREDOLA write. TETRAPLEURA tetraptera belongs to the Mimosaceae/Fabacae family. It is locally known as aridan among the Yoruba, osakirisa or oshosho among the Igbo, dawo among the Hausa, all in Nigeria, and is also referred to as prekese among the Twi people of Ghana.

It is generally found in the lowland forest of tropical Africa. The fruit consist of a fleshy pulp with small, brownish-black seeds. The dry fruit has a pleasant aroma. It is therefore, used as a popular seasoning spice in Southern and Eastern Nigeria. The fruit is used to prepare soup for mothers from the first day of birth to prevent post partum contraction. Its fruits are used for the management of convulsions, leprosy, inflammation, rheumatism, flatulence, jaundice and fevers.

The anticonvulsant activity of the volatile oil from fresh fruits of T. tetraptera in mice has been reported. Its leaves are essential for the treatment of epilepsy and present strong molluscicidal activity. The aqueous fruit extract has also been shown to possess hypoglycaemic (blood glucose-reducing) properties. The root extract has also been proven to be used for the treatment of gastrointestinal related clinical problems.

But a recent study published in International Research Journal of Plant Science has shown that extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera could be effectively used to heal wounds.

The study is titled “Effect of aqueous extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera on excision wounds in albino rats.”

The researchers from the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, wrote: “In this study, Tetrapleura tetraptera was ascertained of its effect on wound healing. The Lethal dose (LD 50) of Tetrapleura tetraptera was determined and the research on its wound healing effect was carried out. The standard method of Nofal was adopted for the determination of the (LD50).

“Wound healing effect was done by excising wounds on anaesthesized rats and then the percentage wound closure (epithelialization) was determined from the treatment with different concentrations of the extract, negative control as well as the positive control. The (LD50) of Tetrapleura tetraptera was 10,000mg/kg body weight. The least concentration (200mg/ml) gave hundred percent (100 per cent) epithelialization at the end of the experiment; 2000mg/ml concentration of the extract delayed the wound healing effect of the plant.

“Conclusively, Tetrapleura tetraptera at 200mg/ml has a potent value of wound healing effect while 2000mg/ml of Tetrapleura tetraptera is not efficacious in wound healing. Thus, Tetrapleura tetraptera could be administered at 200mg/ml for the treatment of wounds.”

Meanwhile, experts say the brownish plant’s aqueous extract possesses anti – inflammatory and hypoglycemic properties, and also serves as sources of some minerals like calcium, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, lipid and iron.

Evidently, one herbalist at the Isolo market, Lagos who preferred to be addressed Iya Alagbo Ewe confirmed this, when she told The Guardian that most herbalists use the plant to prepare concoction of herbs for the treatment rheumatism and general body pains.

Speaking in Yoruba, she explained that it is also used for the treatment of some rashes in children as well as to treat fresh navel sour in babies.

Iya Alagbo Ewe further said that, its only the brown fleshy pulp is used to treat the above, while the whole pod including its seeds is used for the treatment of rheumatism.

She also said some use it as part of the concoction to treat malaria, but she does not, because she sees the plant as an antibiotics on its own, hence it inclusion to malaria concoction might be harsh for some patients.

In eastern Nigerian, the fruit is used to prepare soup like ‘banga’ and pepper soup for nursing mothers to prevent post partum contractions after delivery.

In Ghana, it has been used to flavor soft drinks, which has been approved by the Food and Drugs Board, and is marketed to reduce hypertension, decrease the severity of asthma attacks and promote blood flow.

Because it has been proven to inhibit the growth of bacteria, the pod is also produced into powered form and combined in soap bases to include anti – microbial.

Its sweet fragrance is highly attributed to its insect repellent property. Its highly valued properties have left experts worried about the fact it is gradually being wiped out due to unsubstantial conservation.

According to a study published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, the fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Taub) [Fabaceae] is frequently used in Tropical African traditional medicine for the management and/or control of an array of human ailments, including arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, asthma, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, epilepsy, schistosomiasis, and so on.

The study titled “Anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit aqueous extract in rats” found: “The results of this experimental animal study indicate that T. tetraptera fruit aqueous extract possesses anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties. These findings lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant’s fruit in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, as well as in adult-onset, type-2 diabetes mellitus in some Yoruba-speaking communities of South-Western Nigeria.”

Camerounian researchers in a study titled: ‘Aqueous Extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Mimosaceae) prevents hypertension, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in high salt-sucrose induced hypertensive rats’ concluded: “Present study showed that oral administration of Tetrapleura tetraptera aqueous extract exhibited an antihypertensive and anti-dyslipidemic (cholesterol lowering) effects on high salt-sucrose feeding rats. This effect might be related to its antioxidant potential and supports the traditional use of the stem bark of Tetrapleura tetraptera.”

Dyslipidemia or dyslipidaemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (example cholesterol and/or fat) in the blood. Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen and a biological system’s ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage.

The study published in Pharmacologia investigated the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera aqueous extract in high salt-sucrose-induced hypertensive rats.

Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals or Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).

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In a rich world, a persons value depends on attractiveness and youth. If you are rich and older, just invest in destruction. The poorer the world, the less does your value depend on youth.

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The Healing Powers Of Rose Flower

THE rose plant Rosa gallica officinale belongs to the family of plant known as Rosaceae.

It is a perennial flowering shrub with thorny stems.

The rose flower comes in varying shapes, sizes and colours, each with unique rose scent.

Rose plant flowers can be found in the wild, but they mainly cultivated for commercial or for private use.

The roses are the most deeply ingrained flower in human history and culture.

In 1597, Gerard, in his book Herbal, noted: “…through their beauty and variety or colour and exquisite form, they do bring to a liberal and gentle mind the remembrance of honesty, comeliness and all kinds of virtues.”

Different coloured roses have different meanings. For example, the violet or purple roses symbolises adoration, majesty, royalty and splendor, while the red roses are widely used across the world as symbol and as an expression of deep love, respect and devotional worship.

The flowers absorb and retain higher radiations and release them gradually.

They charge the atmosphere negatively and help to open the heart, the mind and the spirit.

For healing purposes, organic roses (the flowers, petals, rosehips or fruits, leaves, root and bark) that are not sprayed with harmful fungicide or herbicides are used. Chemical Constituents

The flowers and their petals contain a bitter principle, tannin, organic acids, volatile oil, Vitamins A, B, E and K and minerals, such as potassium, zinc, selenium and iron.

The fruits or rose hips are rich in Vitamins C, B and K, as well as volatile oil, plant acids, tannin, sugar, pectin and vanillin, etc. Therapeutic Actions

The flowers and petals have anti-microbial (antibacterial, antiviral, antiseptic), antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, anti-aging, aphrodisiac, astringent, rejuvenating blood tonic, blood purifier, expectorant, emmenogogue, expectorant, digestive stimulant, carminative, heart and kidney tonic, mood enhancing, sedative, nervine, etc properties. Method of Preparations The fresh, dried rose flower petals or the hips (fruits) can be prepared as tea (infusion), decoction (boiling), tincture (alcohol extraction), syrup, white wine or rosewater and be used as medicine.

Medicinal Uses

Infusions/Decoctions

The tea (infusion) or the decoction (boiling) prepared with rose petals with or without the leaves is taken as:

1) An effective blood purifier.

2) Immunity booster against all kinds of infections.

3) Digestive aid for all kinds of digestive- dyspepsia, indigestion, flatulence, colic, halitosis, vomiting, diarrhea, enteritis, dysentery, constipation, hemorrhoids, as they strengthen the liver and are helpful in treating liver disorders.

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Universal education for women is not in the interest of men. For some women, a good education is OK. For the majority, it is unneeded.

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